Ruby Mines District, 1908

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This article has been extracted from



Note: National, provincial and district boundaries have changed considerably since 1908. Typically, old states, ‘divisions’ and districts have been broken into smaller units, and many tahsils upgraded to districts. Some units have since been renamed. Therefore, this article is being posted mainly for its historical value.


Physical aspects

District in the Mandalay Division of Upper Burmama, lying between 22 42' and 24 i' N. and 95 58' and 96 43 X E , with an area of 1,914 ! square miles. The Shan State of Mong- mit (Momeik) lies to the east, and is for the present administered as a subdivision of the District. The combined area is bounded on the north by Katha and Bhamo Districts , on the east by the North Hsenwi State ; on the south by the Tawngpeng and Hsipaw States, and Mandalay District 3 and on the west by Shwebo and Katha Dis- tricts. With the exception of a thin strip of land about 20 miles long by 2 miles wide, half-way down its western border, the whole area lies . east of the Irrawaddy. The District proper consists

aspects. f two tracts, essentially different in configuration : a long plain running north and south bordering the iivei and extending back some dozen miles from its banks , and in the south a mass of rugged mountains, stretching eastwards from the level, in the centie of which lies the Mogok plateau. Noith of this mass the ground rises rapidly from the plains to a ndge bordering the District proper on the east and separating it from the basin of the shweli, in which the whole of the Mongmit State is comprised. The highest peak in the District is Taungme, 7 miles north-west of Mogok and 7,555 feet above the sea; and elsewhere are several imposing hills, conspicuous among them being the Shweudaung (6,231 feet), a little to the west of the first-named eminence The Irrawaddy washes nearly the whole of the western border of the District from noith to south, the upper part of its course being wide and dotted with islands, while the lower part, known as the first defile, lies confined between steep rocky banks which give a succession of picturesque views to the traveller on the river.

The watercourses running acioss the plains into the Irrawaddy are for the most part short and of little importance. After the Irrawaddy the river most worthy of note is the Shweli (or Nam Mao), a considerable stream, which enteis the Mongmit State from China near the important trade centie of Namhkam, and runs in a rocky defile in a south-westerly direction through Mongmit as far as the village of Myitson. Here it abruptly takes a northerly course till 1 Excluding Mongmit State.

it is close to the noithern boundary of the Distiicl, when it bends sharply south-west again to meet the Irrawaddy a few miles above Tigyaing in Katha District The valley below Myitson is wide and to a certain extent cultivated, in marked contrast to the country on the upper course. At Myitson the Shweli is joined on the left by a stream formed by the junction of the Kin, which rises near Shwenyaungbin in the Mogok subdivision, and the Nam Mit (Meik), watering the valley in which the capital of the Mongmit State is situated. Another stream deserving of mention is the Moybe or Nam Pe, which rises in the Tawngpeng State, and, after skirting the southern boundary of Mong- mit and of the District propei, turns south to separate the HsTpaw State from Mandalay District, finishing its couise as the Madaya chming

The whole of the Ruby Mines District is occupied by crystalline rocks, mainly gneisses, and pyroxene granulites, traversed by grains of tourmaline-bearing granite. Between Thabeikkyin and Mogok bands of crystalline limestone are mterbedded with the gneiss, and from these the rubies of the District are derived The stones were formerly obtained from the limestone itself, but the principal sources now are the clays and other debris filling up fissures and caves in the limestone and the alluvial gravels and clays of the valleys of Mogok and Kyatpym Besides rubies, sapphires and spinels with tommaline are found in the alluvium Giaphite occurs in small flakes disseminated through the limestone, and m a few localities is concentrated m pockets of considerable size along the junction of the limestones with the gneiss.

The vegetation is much the same as is descnbed in the article on the NORTHERN SHAN STATES. In the evergreen tracts it is very luxuriant.

Tigers and leopards are common and are very destructive to cattle. Bears, hog, bison, sambar^ and gyi (barking-deer) are all numerous. Elephants are found in places, especially in Mongmit terutory, and here and there rhinoceros have been met with

The Mogok plateau is situated at a high altitude and possesses a temperate climate well suited to Europeans, the maximum and minimum temperatures at Mogok averaging 70 and 37 in December and 80 and 59 in May. Bernardmyo, a small station 10 miles to the north-west of Mogok, and somewhat higher, enjoys a climate colder and more bracing. It used to be a military sanitarium, but the troops have now been withdrawn from it. The climate of the river-side town- ships resembles that of Mandalay, but the country farthei from the river at the foot of the hills is very malarious The Mongmit valley, too, is unhealthy, but, unlike that of Mogok, is excessively hot. The rainfall varies consideiably in the different subdivisions, During the three years ending 1903 it averaged 44 inches at Thabeikkyin, 43 inches at Mongmit, and 98 inches at Mogok.


The Ruby Mines District was constituted in 1886 on the annexation of Upper Burma, but was practically left to itself, so far as any attempt at formal administration was concerned, until the end is ory, ^ t ^ e y eaTj wn en a column under General Stewart marched up to Mogok. Some opposition was encountered in the neighbourhood of Taungme, but it was slight and easily overcome, and the new District remained quiet for about two years after its first occupation. Then troubles fell on it from outside, the result of the vigorous operations m the neighbouring plains, which drove the insur- gents into the hills. Towards the end of the two years it was reported that the capital of Mongmit was being threatened by a large gathering under Saw Yan Naing, a rebel leader who had established his head- quarters at Manpon, a village situated three days' march noith-east of Mongmit. As a result of these reports a small detachment of troops was posted at Mongmit ; and after an unfortunate encountei in which, owing to insufficient information, a handful of troops suffered a reverse, a considerable body of dacoits which had advanced on Mongmit was attacked and severely defeated, The disturbances naturally affected the rest of the District Twinnge, an important village of 300 houses on the bank of the Irrawaddy, was taken and burnt by a band under one Nga Maung. Another man of the same name and other minor dacoits from the same part threatened the District, and a feeling of insecurity prevailed.

On the Tawngpeng border also Nga Zeya, a noted desperado, who had been driven out of Mandalay, was reported to have a considerable following. Dacoities were numerous, and the mam road from Mogok to Thabeikkyin became very unsafe, especially during the rams, when it was haunted by the two Nga Maungs and other outlaws. The military garnson was therefore strengthened , an attack was made on Manpon and Saw Yan Naing's gathering was dis- persed , at the same time steps were taken to strike at the root of the evil by improving the administration of the neighbouring States of Monglong and Tawngpeng, and Gurkha troops were substituted for the existing garrison The net result of all these measures was that the disturbances were reduced to spoiadic dacoities of a petty nature, chiefly committed on traders on the road between Mogok and Tha- beikkyin, and these were finally checked by the maintenance of patrols on the road and the establishment of military police posts in the more important wayside villages The District is now perfectly quiet

The oldest pagoda of which anything is known in the neighbourhood of Mogok is the Shwekugyi, built in Dhammathawka Min's time. It is said to have been elected on the precise spot where the elephant which brought some bones and hair and a tooth of Gautama from ndia knelt down with its piecious burden, At Kyatpyin there is a pagoda on the summit of a hill known as Pingutaung, remarkable chiefly foi the amount of labour that must have been involved in the carriage of the materials to such a height. Tagaung, a village on the Irrawaddy in the west of the District, is the site of the earliest of the known capitals of Burma. Traces of the old city walls are still to be seen; and among the ruins of the pagodas terra-cotta tablets of considerable antiquity, known generally as Tagaung bricks, have been found in the past. Of the Tagaung pagodas, the four of most note are the Shwezigon, the Shwezedi, the Shwebontha, and the Shwegugyi. The most frequented shrine in the District is the Shwe- myindin near Mongmit, which is the scene of a large gathering of many nationalities at the full moon of Tabaung (March) in every year.


The population of the District, excluding the Mongmit State, was 34,062 in 1891 and 42,986 in 1901, while that of the _ Mongmit State in the latter year was 44,708. The distribution of the population of the combined areas in 1901 is set forth below


MOGOK is the only urban area of any size. There has been con- siderable immigration from the Shan States, and to a less extent from the adjoining Districts of Mandalay and Shwebo Buddhism is the religion of 79 per cent of the population and Animism that of most of the remainder. Less than half the people speak Burmese and Shan. Kachm and Palaung are both strongly represented.

Burmans numbered 35,200 in 1901. They form almost the entire population of the river-side (Thabeikkym and Tagaung) townships, and about one-third of that of the Mogok township. There are 10,400 Burmese-speakers, that is Burmans and mixed Burmans and Shans, in the Mongmit State, where they inhabit the larger villages in the valleys of the Shweli and its tubutanes. Shans numbered 16,800 in 1901, being widely distributed over the Mogok township and the entire Mongmit State except in the Kodaung tract, where they have to a large extent been ousted by Kachins, The PALAUNGS numbered 16,400. they share the Kodaung township with the Kachins, and are found in considerable numbers in the Mongmit and Mogok townships.

The KACHINS, numbering 13,300, form half the population of the Kodaung tract, and have spread into the Mongmit township Theie were 2,800 natives of India in 1901 (of whom only 370 resided in the Mongmit State). About one-fourth are Musalmans and the rest Hindus, and two-thirds of the total reside in Mogok and its suburbs. The Census of 1901 showed that 50,900 persons, or 58 per cent, of the total popula- tion, were directly dependent upon agriculture, a low proportion for Burma. Excluding the Mogok township, the percentage becomes 72 as compared with the Provincial average of 66 Of the agricultural population, 28,700 persons were returned as dependent upon taiwgya (shifting) cultivation. About 10 per cent of the total were dependent upon industries connected with precious stones. No Christian missions are maintained,


Owing to the hilly nature of the District the area of taungya cultiva- tion is proportionately large, but nee is also grown on the low-lying levels. The soil in the valleys is usually rich and the rainfall is everywhere sufficient, eked out with the help of some small irrigation works, for the needs of the crops. Rice in the plains is as a rule first raised in nurseries, but the mayin (hot- season) crop is sown bioadcast in the tanks as they dry up Both the plough (te) and the harrow (tun) are employed, and for ploughing purposes the buffalo is in most general use The advantages of manure are not fully understood (except by the Chinese gardeners near Mogok), though the stubble is burnt for fertilizing purposes on the fields. An experimental orchard was started some little time ago at Bernardmyo, but was destroyed by fire before any good result had been attained. The garden was finally given up when it was proved that the rams broke before the fruit could ripen,

The cultivated area of the District is very small. The mam agricul- tural statistics for 1903-4 aie shown in the following table, in squaie miles


Rice is the staple crop, the great bulk of the out-turn being harvested during the cold season. Mayin rice is grown chiefly m Mongmit and Thabeikkym. The 'wet ; rice land in the District proper in 1903-4 comprised about 7,000 acres. A very small aiea (400 acres) is under sesamum, and a still smaller area under maize All kinds of vege- tables are extensively grown , and, in paiticulai, the Lisaw colony near Bernard myo cultivates potatoes, which do very well on the highei lands.

Experiments have lately been made in coffee-growing on the Mogok hills. The soil is said to be suitable, but the industry is impossible at present owing to the high rates that have to be paid for labour. The jungles in the valleys are being gradually cleaied, and cultivation is slowly extending over the face of the country , but the husbandmen are lamentably conservative and no improvements in the quality of seed can be recorded Experiments were made at one time with Havana tobacco, but they ended in complete failure owing to the inclement weather. A similar venture was recently started with Virginia tobacco seed. No advances have been made under the Land Improve- ment Loans Act, but advantage is taken of the Agriculturists' Loans Act, a sum of more than Rs, 20,000 having been advanced under it during the four years ending 1903-4. The loans are utilized chiefly for the purchase of buffaloes for ploughing.

Little attention is paid to the breeding of live-stock, and nature is allowed free play The pomes are as a rule under-sized, good beasts being hard to get. A little attention paid to breeding would be of great advantage and help to rescue this useful type of animal from further deterioration, if not from total extinction. There are no recog- nized grazing grounds, except those reserved by the Forest depaitment, but uncultivated land and jungle are abundant.


The District contains no Government irrigation works, but nearly 2,300 acres of land are irrigated. The fisheries are confined to the Thabeikkyin subdivision. The number of recognized fishing areas is 1 6, and these are divided between the Tagaung and Thabeikkyin townships, ii belonging to the former and 5 to the latter. The most important is the Ywahmwe fishery, which brought in Rs. 4,500 in 1903-4. The total revenue from this source is about Rs. 20,000.

The forests are greatly affected and modified by the physical geography, which must be briefly described to explain the character of its vegetation. The dry tract of Burma extends Forests from Shwebo into the Ruby Mines District in a band of about 10 to 12 miles broad from Thabeikkyin and Tagaung. This and stretch is bounded by latente hills, which in their turn give place to the high range of the Irrawaddy-Shweh watershed, with a large spur running eastwards to Mogok, and boasting of peaks of 6,000 feet and higher. On the eastern side of this watershed the ground slopes gently to an elevated plateau of latente drained by sandy streams, which usually disappear into plains of grass as the Shweli is approached. On VOL. xxi. Y the faither side of that stream, i.e. on its cast bank, peienmal slieams dram a hilly country of metamorphic rocks. On the dry tract the vegetation partakes of the scrub-like chaiactei of the forest of the dry zone, the only bamboo being the my in (Dendro- calamus stnctus\ while the trees, except neai the nvei and jhih, aie for the most pait stunted cutch (Acacia Calechit). This is the only tree of any economic \alue. It glows bparsely now, but must have been plentiful in the past.Whenever the diy plain land uses up to meet the latente hills there aie stretches of indaw^ 01 forests in which the in (Dipterocarpus titberculatus) is the predominant tree. Where the latente is modified with clay the forest is mixed with bamboo (D. st rictus), and the characteristic tree is the than (Terminaha Oliver?). As the watershed of the Irrawaddy is reached, the latente gives way to metamorphic rocks, and the foiest changes to the mixed deciduous type. This consists of teak, pyingado^ and deciduous trees mixed with bamboos. As the elevation rises, the high evergieen forest of Burma is encountered, with various species of oaks and chestnuts, eugenias, Dipterocarpus laevis, and Fid forming the upper stratum, below which are found palms, screw-pines, canes, and bamboos, while the lowest stratum is composed of shrubs and ferns making a dense

mass of vegetation. As the elevation increases to 6,000 feet, wild tea (Camellia tkeifera] and cinnamon are found, while on the topmost levels there is no vegetation except shoit grass which forms open plains, while the ridges are covered with pines (Pin us Khasya] This is the natural sequence where not modified by the action of man ; where, however, taungya cutting has been prevalent, the evergreen foiests turn into huge savannahs of coarse grass, 8 to 10 feet high in the rains, which are burnt annually in the hot season. On the latente hills and plateaux to the east of the Inawaddy-Shweli watershed, the forests consist of puie indaing jungle, \\hich m Mongmit covers about i, 800 squaie miles. On the banks of the sti earns, where the soil is good alluvial loam, puie teak forests of fine quality are met with, 01 padauk mixed with bamboo. West of the Shweli the oidmary deciduous mixed forests of Burma are the iule, till, as the elevation increases, they aie displaced by evergreen vegetation Owing to the extent of the natural teak forests, veiy little systematic planting has been undertaken, a small taungya of 25 acres being the only area under plantations in the District An attempt is being made to reafforest the grass savannahs caused by taungya-cutting in the hills, by putting down pine seedlings. About 30 acres were so tieated ; but the pines were burnt and destroyed the first year, while in the second year the growth, though protected, was poor. In 1903-4 the area of the Forest division was 5,399 square miles, of which 994 square miles were composed of 'reserved' and 4,405 of unclassed forests, The leceipts of the Forest department in 1903-4 amounted to nearl> 4^ lakhs.


The main industry is the extraction of rubies, sapphires, and spinels, all three of which are found togethei in the same gravel-beds, The Burma Ruby Mines Company, Limited, works on a large scale at Mogok and elsewhere with modern mera s '

machinery under a special licence ; and a large but fluctuating nuni ber of natives take out ordinary licences, which do not permit the use of machinery. The company's workings take the form of large open excavations. At present these vary from 20 to 50 feet in depth and aie kept dry by powerful pumps; the ruby earth (locally known as by oti) is loaded by coolies into trucks and hauled up inclines to the washing machines, which are merely rotary cylinders discharging into large pans, where by the action of water and revolving teeth the mud is sepaiated from the gravel The latter is then treated in pulsating machines which still further reduce the bulk, and finally the residue is picked over by hand, For the year ending 1904 the following was the result of the company's operations . rubies, 199,238 carats, valued at 13 lakhs; sapphires, 11,955 caiats, valued at Rs. 8,700, and spinels, 16,020 carats, valued at Rs. 26,300. Of this total, stones worth 8 8 lakhs were sent to London foi disposal there, and 4-5 lakhs' woith was sold locally.

The staff m 1904 consisted of the following : 44 Europeans and Eurasians, earning from Rs. 150 to Rs. 600 a month each; 254 Bur- mans, at R. i each a day , 1,073 Chinese, Shans, and Maingthas, at R. i a day } and 248 natives of India, at from Rs. 20 to Rs. 100 a month, making a total of 1,619 hands. The company derives its power from an electric installation driven by water, which generates about 450 noise-power. During the dry season, steam is used to a limited extent, the fuel being cut locally.

The number of native miners vanes very much, but the average for nine years ending 1904 was 1,220, paying to the company Rs. 60 a month per set of three men working each mine, It is quite impossible to estimate their gain ; but, as the working expenses are at least Rs. 20 a month in addition to the sum paid to the company, the industry must produce Rs. 32,500 a month before any profit is made. The foui methods of native mining adopted are known as hmyaiv or hill-side workings, lu or cave workings, twinlon or pit workings, and se or damming a stieam and diving for the gravel behind the dam or weir. Most of the produce is sold locally, though fine stones frequently go direct to London. In addition to the mining described above, women are allowed to wash with small baskets in all perennial streams licence free. Their individual earnings are probably not often more than a few annas a day, but occasionally they pick up a valuable stone, and on the whole their takings must be not inconsiderable. They sell their finds, usually at the end of each day's work, to small ruby pedlars.

Tourmaline occurs in the District, and is mined on an insignificant scale near Nyaungdauk, on the road to Monglong, and at Mongmit. The Burma Ruby Mines Company did a little work a few years ago on an outcrop of gold-bearing quartz about 5 miles from Thabeikkyin ; but the assays were not encouraging, and the place was abandoned. Plum- bago is found on the surface at many places, notably near Wapyudaung. The company sank several shafts at Onzon, but the vein ended and further mining was discontinued. Various other persons have from time to time obtained prospecting licences and staited a certain amount of work, but the results seem in all cases to have been unsatisfactory, Mica is distributed over apparently the whole District, but does not appear to be present in paying quantities. Limestone exists every- where, but is burnt only where it is wanted for pagodas and brick buildings, and in Mogok by the Ruby Mines Company for their foundations, &c.

Trade and communication

The only local industry that has attained to any dimensions is mining for and trading in precious stones. A certain amount of stone-cutting, polishing, and setting is carried on in Mogok town.

The work is ' however > primitive; and most of the stones are sold m the rough, the best being sent to London and Pans, while the inferior qualities go to Mandalay, Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras. On the Shweli and Irrawaddy rivers the principal non-agricultuial occupations are fishing, bamboo-cutting, and timber-trading. Rafts of bamboos, teak, and other kinds of timber are made up on the banks and floated down to Mandalay. Mamgthas come into the District in large numbers every year for the dry season, chiefly from the Shan-Chinese States of Mongla, Mongda, and Mengtat. They are the iron-workers of the District and are welcome visitors, for, besides being the most expert blacksmiths in an otherwise non-indus- trial community, they are esteemed the best working coolies in Burma. Trade conditions vary in the different parts, but as a general rule the people depend on the outside world for most articles of consumption. Rice, sufficient for the lequirements of the District outside the Mogok township, is grown within its limits in the Thabeikkyin and Mongmit subdivisions, but is also imported from the Shan States of Tawngpeng and Monglong for Mogok and its environs. Other articles of import are opium brought from China via Lashio and Monglong, pickled tea from Tawngpeng and Hslpaw, cotton goods and articles of clothing. Weaving is carried on only in outlying villages, and the out-turn of the looms is intended solely for home consumption, while in the larger towns and villages foreign piece-goods are preferred as being both of better quality and cheaper than the local product. The same is true of articles of hardware. In return for these imports Mogok offers precious stones, and Mongmit and Thabeikkyin nee, timber, and fish. The chief centre of trade is Mogok ; and in the bazar, which is held every fifth day, there are to be seen representatives of a laige and varied number of nationalities.

The mam trade routes to Mogok are the Thabeikkyin cart-road, over which all goods from India and Europe travel, the Monglong road, which unites Mogok with HsTpaw and connects with the Lashio railway ; and the Mongmit road over which the rice from Mongmit and Tawng- peng enters Mogok. Generally it may be said that trade is in the hands of the Chinese and Indian merchants, the Burmans and Shans confining themselves to trading in rice and precious stones. The chiel means of transport are the mule and pack-bullock, the Chinese wooden saddle being used A good deal of transport is done by pakondans men carrying a bamboo pole on their shoulders, from each end of which hangs a pack. The time foi these hucksters is the rainy season, when the hill roads become very trying for animal transport.

There are no railways in the District. The most important road is that from Thabeikkyin to Mogok (61 miles), metalled throughout. This highway and the partially metalled mule-track from Mogok to Konwet, half-way to Mongmit, are maintained from Provincial funds. The District fund is responsible for the upkeep of two partly metalled roads from Mogok, one to Monglong (17 miles), metalled for a portion of its length, and one to Bemardmyo (loj miles) ; also of two un- til etalled cart-roads, one from Twinnge to Thitkwebin (12 miles), and one from Wapyudaung to Chaunggyi (13 miles) ; and of three short cuts on the Mogok-Thabeikkyin road. The Mongmit State maintains an unmetalled cart-road from Thitkwebin to Mongmit (35^- miles), a continuation of the road from Twinnge, and mule-tracks from Mong- mit to Konwet (10 miles), and from Mongmit to Namhkam through Molo. The Irrawaddy is navigable by the largest river steamers at all seasons of the year, and the Irrawaddy Flotilla boats between Manda- lay and Bhamo touch at Thabeikkyin twice weekly up and down. In addition, a steamer plies twice a week between Mandalay and Thabeik- kyin. The Shweli is navigable by river boats up to the cataracts by which the river descends from Namhkam to Molo, and is nowhere fordable.


The District proper is divided into two subdivisions the subdivision and township of MOGOK, and the Thabeikkyin subdivision, composed

of the THABEIKKYIN and TAOAUNG townships. The MONGMIT STATE, which is administered temporarily

as a third subdivision of the District, is divided into the MONGMIT (Momeik) and KODAUNG townships The subdivisions are in charge of the executive officers, as also is the Tagaung township, but the town- ships of Thabeikkym and Mogok are directly undei the subdivisional officers concerned. The Kodaung township is administered by a civil officer, generally a member of the Provincial Service, who is under the direct control of the Deputy-Commissioner, and exercises certain powers under the Kachin Hill Tribes Regulation, 1895. The District forms a subdivision of the Mandalay Public Works division (which includes the greater part of Mandalay District), and is nearly conterminous with the Ruby Mines Forest division There are 261 village headmen, of whom IT aie subordinate headmen, receiving no commission. A num- ber of them exercise special civil and criminal power.

The civil courts are presided over by the executive officers, the treasury officer at Mogok acting as additional judge of the Mogok township court. As the District is situated on the borders of China and the Shan States, and peopled to a large extent by non-Burmans, a large traffic in smuggled opium is carried on, and offences against the Opium Act are consequently common. Similarly, breaches of the Uppei Burma Ruby Regulation, a special local law applicable to the stone tract, are numerous.

The District is made up of various old Burmese jurisdictions, where in former days a variety of revenue methods were in force. What is now the Mogok subdivision consisted of three administrative areas known as sos, which sometimes were independent jurisdictions, each under its own sothugyi, and sometimes formed the combined charge of a Burmese official known as the thonsowim This area was treated practically as a royal demesne, and was to all intents and purposes farmed out to the wun. The rent, which m theory was fixed but in practice was fluctuating, was paid in kind 3 and to obtain the requisite supply of precious stones the wun levied a stone cess or kyaukdawg on those who mined and traded in rubies, and a mmdawg or royal cess on those who did not. The kyaukdaing was paid in rubies 3 and the stones, duly diminished by what the until thought might with safety be appropriated, were remitted to the court at Mandalay. The mindcung was designed to stimulate the production of stones; it was collected in cash, and was employed in making advances to the miners and in paying the wun's subordinates. There was no land tax in the District under Burmese rule, though a nominal assessment of one-third of the gross produce on nee land in the Mogok valley was used to gauge the capacity of the cultivators to pay the mmdaing After the annexation of Upper Burma thathameda was at first the only impost, and land revenue was not assessed till after it had become difficult to prove that the land (which in reality was nearly all state) had not in part been acquired by private individuals.

Revenue rates have varied since land revenue was first demanded. At piesent state land in the Mogok subdivision pays 15 per cent., and non-state land ro per cent,, of its gioss out-tum, and Rs 2-8 per household is paid on taimgya cultivation. The same rates prevail in the Thabeikkyin subdivision, as well as in Mongmit (where in king Mindon's time land revenue was assessed at i-| per cent, of the gross out-turn on all lands) , but in Mongmit a sort of permanent settlement called yaza has been effected m the neighbourhood of the head-quarters, under which the cultivators pay a fixed sum on each plot of land, irrespective of the out-turn The District has not yet been cadastrally surveyed 01 settled The Ruby Mines Company pays an annual rent of 2 lakhs of rupees, plus 30 per cent, of the excess whereby the fees received from holders of ordinary licences exceed 2 lakhs, and 30 pei cent on the net profits of the company. In 1903-4 the receipts of the Government from the company amounted to Rs. 2,11,500. The total collections of thathameda (at Rs. 10 per household) amounted in 1903-4 to Rs 7,300, those of land revenue to Rs. 17,000, and those of fishery revenue to Rs. 24,000, the aggregate revenue from all sources for the District propei (excluding Mongmit) being Rs. 3,90,000.

The District fund had in 1903-4 an income of Rs. 49,300, the chief item of expenditure being public works (Rs. 34,800). No muni- cipalities have been constituted.

The District Supeimtendent is the immediate head of the civil police An Assistant Superintendent is in charge of the police in the Mongmit State. The sanctioned strength of the force is 3 inspectors, 5 head constables, 9 sergeants, and 173 constables. Two Kachin sergeants and 5 constables are also sanctioned for the Kodaung tiact, and are directly under the civil officer, Kodaung They form no part of the regulai District police force There are six police stations in the Dis- trict proper, and three in the Mongmit State. The Ruby Mines Com- pany has three inspectors in its employ invested with police powers, whose duty it is to apprehend and prosecute persons engaged in illicit mining, or otherwise contravening the provisions of the Ruby Regula- tion. The Ruby Mines military police battalion has its head-quarters at Mogok. It is under a commandant and an assistant commandant, and consists of 24 native officers, 79 non-commissioned officers, and So i men, stationed at the several township head-quarters, and on the main road from Mogok to the Irrawaddy.

A jail is undei construction at Mogok. At present convicted prisoners are kept in the lock-up at that station, and, if sentenced to more than two months' imprisonment, are sent under military police escort to Mandalay. The lock-up has accommodation for about 40 prisoners

Education is in a decidedly backward state. There are no Govern- ment schools, and none of the private institutions is at all advanced. In 1901 the propoition of persons leturned as able to read and write was 25-9 per cent. (40 males and 4-7 females), hut the standard of lite- racy must have been very low, In the Mongmit State (with a large non-Buddhist population) the corresponding figure was only 7-7 per cent. In 1904 the District contained 24 primary (public) and 107 elementary (private) schools, with a roll of 1,409 pupils (including 400 girls), as compared with 1,273 in T 9 OT - In I 9 O 3~4 the expenditure on education was Rs 1,600, met wholly from Government.

The only hospital is at Mogok, which has accommodation for 36 in- patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 13,863, including 494 in-patients, and 206 operations were performed The income was made up of Rs. 4,000 from Provincial funds and Rs. 600 from subscrip- tions Another hospital is about to be built at Thabeikkym.

Vaccination is nowhere compulsory within the limits of the District In 1903-4 the number of persons successfully vaccinated was 2,451, representing 28 per 1,000 of population.

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