Pt Deendayal Upadhyaya
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A philosopher , economist
Pt Deendayal Upadhyaya faced deaths of close ones in an early age but he surpassed all the sorrows moved ahead and became leader. He was born in a lower middle class Hindu family on September 25,1916 in Dhankia, Rajasthan. His mother was highly religious minded lady. Deendayal Upadhyaya was at the age of two and half years when unfortunately his father expired. There was no bread earner in the family so family began to stay with maternal grandfather. His mother Rampyari was diagnosed with tuberculosis and soon died. Deendayal’s maternal grandfather left for heaven when Deendayal was only 10 years old. Thanks to his maternal uncle who brought homeless children up like his own children. Deendayal however, was aware that he had to take care and be a guardian for his younger brother. But his brother Shivdayal breathed his last on November 18,1934 due to smallpox. Despite his efforts, he could not save him. Deendayal studied with renewed energy and attended high school in Sikar. Intelligent and bright from birth, he won several gold medals and prestigious awards at school and college level. He attended school at GD Birla College at Pilani and later completed his graduation from Sanatan Dharma College in Kanpur University. Further, he even qualified in the civil service exam but did not join, as he was more attracted towards service for the common public.
Since his early years, he was highly encouraged and dedicated towards social service. He got associated with Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (R S S) during his college times in Kanpur in 1937. There he interacted with R S S founder, Dr. Hedgewar and devoted himself totally towards the organization. He was a regular reader of Rashtradharm a monthly journal published in Luckhnow during 1940’s, and this developed journalism within him. In 1942, he did not look out for a job nor did he marry; but attended the 40-day summer R S S camp at Nagpur to undergo training in Sangh Education. During his tenure with R S S, he started a weekly Panchjanya and a daily Swadesh. He translated the biography of R S S founder Dr. K.B. Hedgewar from Marathi to Hindi. In 1952 he wrote a book “Akhand Bharat Kyon.” In 1958 “Vikas Ki Disha” and “Bharatiya Arthniti.” He also wrote “Rasthra Chintan, Integral Humanism, and Rashtra Jivan Ki Disha.” In 60’s he wrote “Rashtra Jivan Ki Samasyayen, Devaluation, A Great Fall and Political Diary”.
In 1951 Dr Syama Prasad Mookerjee founded Bharatiya Jan Sangh and Deendayal Upadhyaya was appointed as the first General Secretary. He continued to hold this position until the 14th Cabinet session in December 1967. He served as the General Secretary for nearly 15 years and raised the organization with high spirits and enthusiasm, thereby making it one of India’s strongest political parties. His intelligence and perfectionism compelled Dr. Syama Prasad Mookerjee to say, “If I had two Deendayals, I could transform the political face of India.” The sudden and untimely death of Dr. Syama Prasad Mookerjee in 1953 left the entire responsibilities and burden of the organization on the young shoulders of Deendayal.
Bharatiya Jan Sangh with the efforts of Pt Deendayal Upadhyaya was able to establish 243 regional and 889 local committees, with membership toll to 74,863 by 1957. At the 14th annual session of Bharatiya Jan Sangh in Calicut in December 1967, Deendayal was elected as the president. He tried to raise India on the basis of its rich culture but not with western thoughts left by English at the time of quitting India. Democracy according him was India’s birthright but not a gift of the West. He believed that even a single individual or a large group; every person had the right to state his viewpoint. His concept was that each person should be respected and incorporated into governance. He ensured that democracy does not go beyond its limits and considers public opinion in the light of its faith and religion.
Pt Deendayal Upadhyaya gave a new concept of “Integral Humanism” which became political philosophy of Bharatiya Jana Sangh (Now Bharatiya Janata Party). Integral Humanism advocates the simultaneous and integrated programme of the body, mind, intellect and soul of each human being. He was believer of the concept that India as an independent nation could not own western concepts like individualism, democracy, socialism, communism and capitalism. He believed that the Western concepts, so tried hard would keep it away from the atmosphere of Indian soil, would suffocate the original Bharathiya thought.
Being important participant in the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and the president of Bharatiya Jana Sangh he stood against western secularism, western democracy, and other western issues that were blindly followed by India during the British rule. Though the concept of democracy was readily accepted, he refused to step into the shoes of western exploitations and capitalism. Pt. Deendayal Upadhyaya emphasized on building a democracy that spoke for the public and its ideals.
On 19 December 1967, emerged an national leader when he was elected President of Bharatiya Jan Sangh. He was president of the party only for 43 days. On 11 February 1968 he was found dead at the Mughal Sarai railway station. It is believed that Deendayal was traveling to Patna for the budget session. However, midway, his bogey detached from the train at Mughal Sarai. People closed offices and shops in Delhi, gathered on Rajendra Prasad Marg to pay their tribute to great leader.
He was paid homage by the then Indian President Dr. Zakir Hussain, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, and Morarji Desai, amongst other eminent leaders, social workers, and cultural figures.
In short it is unfortunate that India lost a great leader in mysterious condition and needs probe.