Pakistan- India: issues

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This is a collection of articles archived for the excellence of their content.


Infiltration along Indo-Pak border

Jan-July 2015

Infiltration along Indo-Pak border, Jan-July 2015; Graphic courtesy: The Times of India, July 28, 2015

See graphic:

Infiltration along Indo-Pak border, Jan-July 2015

Nuclear facilities

1980: CIA thought Indira wanted to bomb Pakistan’s N facilities

The Times of India, Sep 01 2015

Indira wanted to nip Pak's nuclear dreams in the bud

India was cognizant of the threat from Pakistan's nuclear weapons program and then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi may have considered eliminating it when she returned to office in 1980 long before it neared fruition, a CIA assessment from that era has revealed. The CIA report, declassified in June 2015 and first reported by PTI, says Mrs Gandhi considered the option follow ing the pros pect of the US providing F-16 fighter jets to Pakistan, giving Islamabad the possible means to deliv er nuclear weapons.

“In the extreme case, if Indian concerns increase over the next two or three months, we believe the conditions could be ripe for a decision by Prime Minister Gandhi to instigate a military confrontation with Pakistan, primarily to pro vide a framework for destroying Pakistan's nuclear facilities,“ says a redacted version of the 12page document that was declassified this year. The report also says Mrs Gandhi was ready to order a resumption of nuclear tests.

P M Gandhi probably has not made a decision to exercise a military option against Pakistan. In the extreme case, if India's concern about deliveries of F-16s to Pakistan increases before the optimum time for exercising the military option (in October or November according to one report), the conditions could be ripe for Prime Minister Gandhi to carry out the contingency strike plan,“ the largely speculative assessment added.

According to the report, as Pakistan was in an advanced stage of producing plutonium and highly-enriched uranium for use in nuclear weapons, Gandhi evidently responded to the threat by authorizing Indian nuclear test preparations.

“In February (1981), exca vation was begun in the Thar desert to permit the under ground explosion of an Indi an test device on short no tice,“ the CIA said, adding that in May preparations had been completed by India for a 40-kiloton nuclear test. The CIA said India reportedly was to explode the device about one week after the expected Pakistani test. “Evidently, the Indian government calculated that a Pakistani nuclear explosion per se would not constitute a na tional security threat, and that the damage to India's image of pre-eminence in the region could be minimised by a resumption of the peace ful nuclear explosive (PNE) program,“ the CIA said.

Both assessments, largely in the speculative realm given lack of affirmation from New Delhi, redefines some of the known discourse on the subject.

Previous accounts have suggested Mrs Gandhi may have had the option of elimi nating Pakistan's nuclear programme with Israeli help as late as 1984. Some reports have said Israel approached New Delhi with the offer to bomb Pakistan's main nuclear facility at Kahuta if India offered its jets re fueling assurance, but India demurred.

Pakistan's runaway nu clear program has now racked up more than 120 nu clear weapons in an unstable toxic country wracked by ethnic and sectarian hatred.

1983: Raja Ramanna warned Indira

The Times of India, Sep 02 2015

Picture courtesy: The Times of India, Sep 02 2015

Srinivas Laxman

How the father of Indian N-bomb stalled strike on Pak nuclear sites

Ramanna got Indira to abort bid in 1983

In a strange twist of irony , the person who was responsible for stalling India's plan to bomb Pakistan's nuclear weapons facilities in 1983 was none other than the father of the Indian nuclear bomb, Raja Ramanna. Ramanna himself had confirmed this to TOI on two occasions in private conversations after his retirement as chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission in 1987.He passed away in Mumbai on September 24, 2004.

Though Ramanna had de clined to go into specifics, he had recalled that in 1983, when he was in Vienna to attend an International Atomic Energy Agency meet, he was “warned“ by ex-chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission Munir Ahmed Khan that if India hit its nuclear facilities, Pakistan would launch a retaliatory strike at BARC, Trombay , in Mumbai, the heart of India's nuclear weapons programme.

Ramanna immediately informed Indira about the dangerous consequences of bombing Pakistan's nuclear establishment and the operation was stopped.

The story goes that when Khan was attending the IAEA meet, he received a classified coded message about India's plans through the Pakistani ex-ambassador to Vienna, Abdul Sattar. That night, Khan invited Ramanna for dinner at the Imperial Hotel and the two arch rivals talked for a while. Then the moment arrived when Khan decided to say why he had suddenly called for the dinner meeting: it was not to exchange pleasantries but to deliver a stiff warning about the retaliatory strike on BARC.

Whether Ramanna knew of this plan earlier remains unclear. But the first thing he did on his arrival from Vienna was to rush to Indira. He conveyed to her Khan's warning and succeeded in making her scrap the idea altogether.

In the book `Nuclear Deception' by Adrian Levy and Catherine Scott-Clark, it is stated that India's plan was code-named `Osirak Contingency', after the Israeli bombing of the Iraqi nuclear weapons plant at Osirak, 18 miles south of Baghdad, in 1981.

According to the book, exIAF chief Dilbaug Singh was to have commanded the Pakistani operation and had ordered a Jaguar squadron to practice low-level flying with 2,000-pound bombs -a squadron had been kept on standby at the Jamnagar air force base to carry out the attack at a moment's notice.

Then, when the CIA got hint of India's plans, it alerted the US administration.The US state department then flashed a strong message to India: “The US will be responsive if India persists.“

Ramanna's message to Gandhi quoting Khan along with the US state department warning made Gandhi evetually scrap the operation, which upset both Indian military planners and Israel.

Indians arrested for spying for Pakistan in 2015, and what they leaked to Pakistan; Graphic courtesy: The Times of India Jan 04 2016

Raja Ramanna stalled India's plan?

The Times of India, Sep 02 2015

Raja Ramanna foiled strike on Pak's N-sites  Raja Ramanna, father of the Indian N-bomb, was also the person responsible for stalling India's plan to bomb Pakistan's nuclear weapon facilities in 1983, re ports Srinivas Laxman. Ramanna had con firmed this to TOI in pri vate conversations after he retired from the Atomic En ergy Commission in 1987.

Ramanna, who passed away in 2004, had said that he was “warned“ by former chair man of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission Munir Ahmed Khan in 1983 that if India hit Pakistan's nuke weapons facilities, it would launch a retaliatory strike on BARC, Trombay . Raman na apparently informed then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi about the conse quences and the operation was stopped.

Overstayal by Pakistanis

See Foreign nationals overstaying in India

Grant of citizenship by Pakistanis to Indians


Pak grants nationality to 298 Indians in 5 years: Ministry, Aug 20, 2017: The Times of India


Pak is believed to be a country where getting nationality has always been a difficult task

In 2012, 48 Indian emigrants were granted nationality, which rose to 75 in 2013 and 76 in 2014

15 were given nationality in 2015, while 69 got it in 2016, until April 14 this year, 15 Indians got nationality

ISLAMABAD: Pakistan has granted nationality to at least 298 Indian emigrants in the last five years, according to the interior ministry. "From 2012 till April 14, 2017, a total number of 298 Indian emigrants have been granted Pakistani citizenship," the interior ministry said in a statement on Saturday. The statement was issued in response to a question by the ruling Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz lawmaker Sheikh Rohail Asghar in the National Assembly, the Express Tribune reported.

In 2012, 48 Indian emigrants were granted Pakistani nationality, which rose to 75 in 2013 and 76 in 2014. Only 15 were given nationality in 2015, while 69 got it in 2016, until April 14 this year, 15 Indians got nationality, the statement said. Pakistan is believed to be a country where getting nationality has always been a difficult task, but innumerable illegal immigrants from many countries, especially India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Burma, are living here, it added.

There is one well-known case of awarding Pakistani nationality to an Indian national in the recent past.

Her citizenship application had been pending with the ministry since 2008. The woman had been married to a Pakistani man a long time back. After his death, her stepsons allegedly deprived her of her inheritance.


Pakistan as buffer against Russia

The Times of India, Sep 02 2015

Rajiv saw Pak as `strategic buffer' against USSR: CIA files

Contradicting perceived proximity to the Soviet Union in the Cold War era, India under the then PM Rajiv Gandhi had toyed with the idea of supporting antiRussian civilian groups in Pakistan if the then Zia regime was thrown out by Moscow, a recent declassified CIA document has claimed. According to CIA documents of the era, which were recently declassified, Gandhi wanted non-interference from both the United States and the then USSR.

While taking note of the historic India-USSR relationship in particular in the defence field, the CIA report of April 1985 noted that India is likely to become increasingly concerned about long-range Soviet intentions in the region. “New Delhi regards Pakistan as a strategic buffer against the USSR and would oppose Moscow's effort to dominate Pakistan. New Delhi and Moscow would find themselves supporting rival factions within Pakistan,“ said the report.


India Today , Spy wars “India Today” 1/5/2017

See graphic

Spying by Pakistan

Pakistani spy modules overstaying in India

The Times of India

December 10, 2014

The home ministry said Pakistan's ISI had been indulging in espionage activities in India, and that 33 espionage modules backed by the neighbouring country had been busted over the past three years. In a written reply to a question in Lok Sabha, minister of state for home affairs Haribhai Parthibhai Chaudhary said as many as 50 espionage agents, including some ex-babus of Indian government, had been arrested as part of the crackdown on Pakistan-backed modules.

“Pakistan intelligence agencies, particularly the Pakistan ISI, has come to notice for conducting espionage activities in the country... during the period from January 2011 to November 2013, 33 Pakistan-backed espionage modules were neutralized in India, resulting in the arrest of 50 espionage agents, including some retired Indian government officials,“ Chaudhary said.

Pakistani spies in India

The Times of India

Dec 24 2014

Four men in forces spying for Pak caught in last 2 yrs

Four armed forces personnel have been arrested in recent times for spying for Pakistan, government told Parliament. One of the accused was dismissed from service later.

Defence minister Manohar Parrikar told Rajya Sabha that three personnel were nabbed just this year while one was arrested in 2012. “Appropriate action has been taken against the accused as per law and laid down procedure in this regard. One accused has been dismissed from service. Other cases are at different stages in civilmilitary courts,” he said.

To a question on what action the government has proposed to take to prevent such cases, the Minister said that armed forces have counter intelligence set up in place to prevent such espionage cases. He said advisories have also been issued to sensitize and educate armed force personnel and institute appropriate mechanism to prevent recurrence of such incidents.

Meanwhile, the government told Lok Sabha that six people have been arrested this year for indulging in espionage for Pakistan in India. Among those nabbed, five are Indians and one is a Sri Lankan national.

“During the current year-2014 (till December 17), six Pak espionage modules have been neutralized in the country resulting in the arrest of six persons along with information and documents relating to various establishments in the country. Out of these six accused, five are Indian and one is a Sri Lankan national,” Minister of state for home, Haribhai Parathibhai Chaudhary said in a written reply.

He said the government is pursuing a well coordinated approach to tackle spying in the country which include strengthening vigilance on the borders to check infiltration, close interaction and coordination between different agencies, strengthening of state police and forces.


See also: Terrorism, sponsored by Pakistan

Govt against declaring Pak a terror state

The Times of India, Feb 22, 2017

The government has conveyed to the Rajya Sabha secretariat its opposition to a private member's bill seeking to declare Pakistan as a terror-sponsoring nation. “India can't declare any country a `terror state' as it has to maintain diplomatic relations with all countries. Besides, in principle it is very rare that the government supports any Private Member's Bill,“ said a home ministry official. TNN

See also

Pakistan- India economic relations

Pakistan- India: issues

Pakistan vs. India, cricket

Pakistan- India: Cease-fire and its violations

Nuclear weapons testing: India- Pakistan

Nuclear arsenals: India, Pakistan

Russia- India trade relations

Pakistan- India relations

and many more articles, especially about the 1965 and 1971 wars, The Kargil war of 1999, 1947...

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