Katha District, 1908

From Indpaedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Hindi English French German Italian Portuguese Russian Spanish

This article has been extracted from



Note: National, provincial and district boundaries have changed considerably since 1908. Typically, old states, ‘divisions’ and districts have been broken into smaller units, and many tahsils upgraded to districts. Some units have since been renamed. Therefore, this article is being posted mainly for its historical value.


Katha District

District in the Mandalay Division of Upper Burma, lying between 23 30' and 25 7' N. and 95 6' and 96 42' E., for the most part along the west bank of the Irrawaddy, with an area of 6,994 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the Upper Chindwin and Myitkyina Districts ; on the east by the Kaukkwe river as far as its junction with the Irrawaddy ; thence, by the State of Mongmit (Momeik) and the Shweli river to its mouth, and southwards of this point by the Irrawaddy. The southern boundary abuts on the Ruby Mines and Shwebo Districts, and the western on the Upper Chindwin.

Physical aspects

With the exception of a small tract east of the Irrawaddy, the greater part of Katha is a mass of hill country. Three main ranges traverse the District, roughly from north to south, separating its principal streams, but they are of no very great

height. Of these, the easternmost is the Gangaw range, which runs southwards from the north-east corner of the District to meet the Irrawaddy at Tigyaing. Its course is, in the main, parallel to that of the stream, and its highest point is 4,400 feet above sea-level. The principal pass crossing it is at Petsut, 1 2 miles west of Katha, over which a small branch line runs from Katha to Naba on the main line of the railway, at a height of about 500 feet above the surrounding country. West of the Gangaw Hills is the Minwun range, starting from the extreme northern limit of Katha, east of the Taungthonlon hill, and running down the centre of the District to its southern boundary, where the Irrawaddy flows about 5 or 6 miles east of the hills. The principal pass over this ridge is the Mawgun-. daing, crossed east and west by the road from Tigyaing to Wuntho, about 12 utiles west of Tigvaing, at a height of about 1,500 feet. There is a gap in the hills near Mawteik, through which the Meza river has cut from west to east. The Sagaing-Myitkyina railway on its way north climbs the range by way of a gorge between Bonchaung and Nankan. The third main range, the Mangin, passes through the 'untho subdivision to the east of the Mu river. Its most elevated point is Maingthon, 5,450 feet above sea-level, a little west of the centre of the District. This is the highest peak actually within the District, though the Taungthonlon, on the north-western border, is a little higher. All three hill ranges are covered with dense jungle, and contain much teak and other valuable timber, besides considerable quantities of bamboo.

The principal rivers are the Irrawaddy, the Kaukkwe, the Shweli, the Meza, the Mu, and the Namyin (or Mohnyin). The Irrawaddy enters Katha about half-way down its eastern side, and as far south as the mouth of the Shweli separates the greater part of the District from a small level tract on its eastern bank. South of the Shweli it forms the eastern boundary for about 25 miles. It runs with a south-westerly course in what is for the most part a wide channel interspersed with numerous slands, and is navigable all through the year by all sizes of river-craft. The Shweli flows into the Irrawaddy on its left bank, in the south-east of the District, separating Katha from the Ruby Mines District for about 25 miles. In these lower reaches it is a wide waterway on which boats can ply. The Kaukkwe stream, winding southwards into the Irrawaddy from Myitkyina, forms the eastern boundary from its confluence with the main stream up to the north- east corner of the District. It can be used by light-draught launches as far as Thayetta (20 miles), and by small river-craft right up into Myitkyina. Separated from the Irrawaddy valley by the Gangaw range is the malarious Meza valley. The Meza rises in the Taung- thonlon hill on the north-west border of the District, and, with its numerous affluents, waters nearly all the Banmauk subdivision. Follow- ing a southerly course, it passes through a gap in the Minwun range, and enters the Indaw township near Mawteik, and thence flows southwards between the Gangaw and Minwun ranges, emptying itself eventually into the Irrawaddy, immediately below Tigyaing. The valley between the two eastern hill ranges, followed by the railway for the greater part of its course through the District, is drained in the far north by the Namyin (Mohnyin), a southern tributary of the Mogaung river in Myitkyina District. In the south-western quarter of the District, lying west of the Mangin range, is the Mu, which rises in the south-west of the Banmauk subdivision and flows in a southerly direction, through the middle of the Pinlebu township, into Shwebo District, but is not navigable within the limits of Katha. Its tributary on the east, the Daungyu chaung, rises in the Wuntho township, waters the entire Kawlin township, and from its mouth eastwards for more than 30 miles forms the southern boundary of the District.

The Indaw Lake is the only considerable sheet of water in Katha. It lies close to the railway, 5 miles west of Naba junction near the centre of the District. It is more than 3 miles long and a mile broad, and is a fishery of some importance. A curious feature of the lake is the absence of any streams flowing either into or out of it.

The Mangin range of hill consists of trap, with veins of gold-bearing quartz, while the eastern part of the District is occupied by crystalline palaeozoic rocks, of which little is known. West of these, a portion of the country is covered by Tertiary sandstones and clays, in which coal has been found near Wuntho. West of this again, a large area of eruptive diorite, associated with volcanic ash, has been laid bare by the denudation of the Tertiary sandstones. The diorite contains veins of auriferous pyrites, the same metal being found also dissemi- nated in the ash-beds. The Minwun range is principally sandstone, and the Gangaw range consists of mica schist in the south and of granite in the north. Limestone also occurs in parts.

The most noticeable features of the vegetation are touched upon under the head of Forests below. The flora is rich and varied, but has not been studied scientifically. The wild animals usually found in Upper Burma are plentiful. Tigers, leopards, elephants, bison, and tsine or hsaing {Bos sondaicus) roam the jungles in considerable numbers, while bears are common in the more hilly parts. Thamin (brow-antlered deer) are fairly numerous in the southern part of the Wuntho subdivision. Wild hog are plentiful everywhere, and do much damage to the crops. The Khedda department are at present working in the District, and have effected considerable catches of elephants, but many of these died of anthrax.

Katha has a bad reputation for malarial and other fevers. The tarai at the foot of the hills is undoubtedly very unhealthy at all times ; in the hot months the heat all over the District is great, and the absence of wind at this season and in the rains adds to the discomfort of the residents, while even the cold season is made un- healthy by fogs near the Irrawaddy and the other streams. The temperature has not been regularly recorded ; but it has been found to range roughly from 45 at night to 75 in the day in the winter, from 70 to 90° in the rains, and from 8o° to 105 in the hot season. In the cold season there are heavy dews. The annual rainfall aver- ages 58 inches at Katha, and varies in the other portions of the District from 42 inches at Tigyaing in the plains to 67 inches at Bamnauk in the hilly areas. The Meza valley between the Indaw Lake and Meza railway station is subject to inundation. The most notable flood of recent years occurred in 1901, when considerable damage was done to the railway and to other property.


Few details of the early history of the District are known. It is said that during the eleventh century Anawrata, who was then king of Pagan, made a pilgrimage to China in search of relics of Buddha. This led to an endeavour to define the boundary of his territory with China ; and from this time onwards the tribes to the north, including those in the neighbour- hood of what is now known as Katha, are said to have acknowledged Burmese suzerainty. The Kachins are reputed at one time to have inhabited a large area in Katha and to have been gradually pushed back to the northern hills by the Shans and Burmans, but this seems doubtful ; in fact, everything points to the pressure having been from the north, and to have been applied by the Kachins, who have, so far as appears, not given ground again. A Chinese army is said to have overrun the District in one of the invasions from the north, but its stay was of brief duration. It established itself at Tigyaing, where portions of the old fort walls are still visible, but it was soon driven out. In 1883 the northern part of the District was invaded by Kachins from the north, who burnt many villages and ravaged a great portion of the country.

Katha was first occupied by the British early in 1886, and gave some trouble during that and the following year. In course of time the troops, British and Native, were gradually replaced by military police. It was not, however, until the commencement of the year 1890 that the assistance of the regulars could be wholly dispensed with. The character of the country rendered the breaking up of the rebel and dacoit gangs, many of which were headed by ex-Burmese officials and professional brigands, no easy or expeditious matter, and the malarious climate caused the loss of many lives. The District, known in the early years after the annexation as Myadaung, was always noted for its turbulence ; and it is gravely recorded that the local village officials (myothugyis and shwehmus) were formerly compelled to live in specially high houses, and to sleep in coffin-like troughs of wood of sufficient thickness to resist a gunshot or the lunge of a spear.

Chief among those who indirectly opposed the British after the annexation was Maung Aung Myat, the Sawbwa of 'Wuntho, a so- called Shan State lying between Katha. District and the Upper Chindwin. This chieftain seized the opportunity to increase both his power and the area of his State. By various means he succeeded in driving out a number of officials on his borders, and by promises of loyalty and obedience to the British Government he obtained permission to retain as part of the Wuntho State a portion of the territory thus acquired. It was long, however, before he would meet British officials, and eventually in 1891 a rebellion broke out at his instigation among the Wuntho people. The first signal act of insur- rection was the seizure of Banmauk in February. This was followed by an attack upon Kawlin and the burning of the subdivisional head- quarters. Other acts of violence were committed and much damage was done to property. The rebels were, however, defeated at Kawlin, at the Kyaingkwin hill between Kawlin and Wuntho, and at Okkan in the Ye-u country ; and the rising was suppressed before the end of the hot season, at the cost, however, of a European officer and a number of men. Its immediate result was the incorporation of Wuntho State in Katha District. The Sawbwa escaped to China, where he is believed to be still living.

The most notable sacred edifices are the Myazedi, the Shwegugyi, the Aingtalu, the Myatheindan, and the Shwebontha pagodas. The Myazedi is situated in the middle of Katha town, and forms the land- mark dividing the northern from the southern quarter. It is said to be one of 84,000 pagodas, each no bigger than a cotton basket, built by a king of Patna, known to the Burmese as Thiridhammathawka Min of Patayipotpyi. U Pathi, a myothugyi of Katha, enlarged the pagoda to its present size and shape in 1832. In 1883 it was greatly damaged by the wild Kachins who occupied the town during the raid referred to above, and what almost amounts to a new shrine has now been built on the old site in the most modern style of Burmese architecture. The Shwegugyi pagoda, built by king Bodawpaya, stands in the northern quarter of Katha town. The Shwebontha pagoda, situated at Bilumyo, is also said to be one of the 84,000 works of merit aforesaid. Near it are the ruins of an old fortified city. The Aingtalu pagoda stands about 2 miles north-east of Aleywa (Moda), on a hill on the west bank of the Irrawaddy. It appears to be a very ancient structure, and is much broken down, and for many years was completely hidden by jungle growth. The Myatheindan pagoda stands on the end of the Gangaw range above the Irrawaddy at Tigyaing. The remains of the old wall erected by the Chinese when they invaded this part of the country are still to be seen at Tigyaing.


The population of Katha in 1891 was 90,548 (not including the Wuntho State, annexed in that year)and India 1901 amounted to 176,223. Its distribution in the latter year is shown in the table on the next page. There are no towns of importance, and very few large villages. The last few years have seen a rapid increase of population in the country lying along the railway; but it has not extended to the riverain portions of the District, where, it is said, development has been arrested by the cost of transit. Immigration has taken place largely from Shwebo, and to a lesser extent from Mandalay District. Rather more than 95 per cent, of the people are Buddhists. Burmese is the language of about 123,000. Kadu is spoken in the west, and Shan and Kachin in the north.

Katha district.png
  • The last four townships belonged in 1891 to the State of Wuntho.

Of the total population in 1901, Burmans numbered 82,800; Shans, 49,400; Kadus, 34,200; and Kachins, 5,900. The first named are settled over the greater part of the District ; but while the Tigyaing and Wuntho townships are almost exclusively Burmese, there are comparatively few Burmans in the Banmauk and Mawlu townships. Broadly speaking, the Burmese element is strongest in the south, and grows weaker towards the north, where Shans, Kadus, and Kachins preponderate. The Kadus inhabit the western townships — Banmauk, Pinlebu, and Indaw; the Shans occupy the north, being most numerous in the Mawlu township, but they are well represented also in Katha, Indaw, Pinlebu, and Banmauk, particularly in the last two. The Kachins are found in greatest numbers in the hills of Mawlu in the north of the District, and in the north of the Katha township. In 1901 Musalmans numbered 940 and Hindus 1,240 ; of these 450 Musalmans and 180 Hindus lived in Katha town. A large number of the Indian residents are Government or railway employes. The number of Christians in 1901 was only 153, mostly Europeans and Eurasians. Nearly half of them were residents of Katha town. In 190 1 about 77 per cent, of the population were engaged in or dependent on agriculture, about one-sixteenth of these being supported by taungya (shifting) cultivation alone.


The District is composed mainly of hills, between which lie scattered patches of cultivated land, where the silt brought down by the streams from the hill-sides has been deposited so as to form a surface sufficiently level for rice cultivation. In the higher valleys the soil is, as a rule, very fertile, the most common type being a rich grey loam known as myema. Another kind is a thick heavy clay, hard to work, and very liable to become waterlogged, a defect which is common more or less to all the soils of the District. In the lower valleys the ground is often similar to that described above, but in many cases it appears to have been formed of matter washed down from the lower slopes of the hills. These are as a rule composed of induing or laterite, and the low land is therefore often very sand) 1 and of poor quality. Plains of moderate extent stretch southwards from Wuntho to the boundary of Shwebo District, and from Mohnyin in a north-easterly direction to Myitkyina. Ta//ngy a -cutting is practised in parts, but there is little or no permanent ya (high land) cultivation. The taungya-cutters are recognized as the poorest members of the agricultural community, and it is always their ambition to become possessed of ordinary plain rice land, though they seem somewhat reluctant to migrate in search of it.

The land tenures prevailing are of considerable interest. Officers have from time to time been placed on special duty in connexion with this question, but a comprehensive inquiry has only recently been made by the Settlement officer. From his report it appears that the southern part of the District includes small portions of the old Pyinsala- nga-myo and Myedu wun-ships. In these tracts the tenures are similar to those prevailing in other parts of Upper Burma. In the rest of the District the tenures are found to have been of a communal nature. Land within a village or tAugyi-ship could be held only by a resident, and sales or mortgages, where permitted at all, were allowed only to another resident. If a landholder removed to another village he forfeited his land, though in some cases he was entitled to recover it on his return. This system was enforced most stringently in the old Wuntho State, where no mortgages or sales were permitted, and where the thugyi, as head of the commune, allotted available lands to residents, and might in certain cases redistribute land already occupied or subdivide an existing holding to provide land for a new- comer. In what is known as the Shwe country, and elsewhere in the District, the power of the thugyi was more restricted.

The principal agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are given in the table on the next page, the areas being in square miles. Of the total cultivated area, rice covered 223 square miles, and sesamum 3,300 acres. Tea and tobacco are grown, but only to a small extent. The former is produced on the hills in the Banmauk township in the north-west of the District. The area under garden cultivation was only 800 acres, composed mostly of plantain groves.

Cultivation is extending gradually and normally, and in several areas it is still susceptible of considerable expansion. Its growth is most marked in the plains around Mohnyin. This part of the country, which was ravaged by the Kachins in 1883, is now being rapidly repopulated, and much of the old cultivated land is being cleared afresh. There is little indebtedness among the local husbandmen. The ancient systems of land tenure are still maintained, and these being of a communal or quasi-communal character strictly forbid the alienation of land to persons living outside the community. Govern- ment advances for agricultural purposes have been freely made since 1888-9. The amount advanced in 1903-4 was Rs. 18,000. No difficulty has been experienced in the recovery of the loans.

Katha district1.png

There are no special breeds of domestic animals. Buffaloes are more generally used than kine, and those suitable for timber-dragging fetch the highest prices. Ponies are imported principally from the Shan States through Bhamo, and are generally small-sized. Generally speaking, goats are kept only by natives of India.

A good deal of the rice land is irrigated in some way or other, as the conformation of the country lends itself to such processes. To secure the required water, the many hill streams and rainy season drainage channels are dammed, and their contents diverted on to the fields. Most of the dams, however, supply only small areas, sometimes only a single holding. The most important irrigation scheme is at Wuntho, where two weirs on the Daungyu water a considerable area, dowered with a fertile soil and productive of good crops. A fairly extensive area also is irrigated in the neighbourhood of the Indaw Lake. On the Meza the water-wheel known as the yit is used to lift water on to the fields. The total area returned as irrigated in 1903-4 was 47 square miles. The most important inland fishery is in the Indaw Lake. Fishing is carried on in sections of the Irrawaddy and the Meza, known as the Myityo fisheries, and in the swamps adjoining the former river. The fishery revenue in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 70,000.


The District comprises the greater part of the Katha. Forest division, as well as portions of the Mu and Upper Chindwin divisions. The Katha division lies close to the Irrawaddy, and includes the area drained by the Meza river. The Mu division comprises as much of the District as is drained by the Mu river and its tributary the Paungyu. A portion of the Banmauk township falls within the drainage area of the Chindwin, and is included in the _ Upper Chindwin Forest division. The total forest area exceeds 4,000 square miles in extent, and includes 1,119 square miles of ' reserved ' forests. Reservation is not yet complete, but some areas have already been notified, and others will probably be proposed shortly. Teak is the predominant species of timber tree ; in fact, in many places it may be said to grow almost like a weed. Padauk (Pterocarpus sp.) and pyingado (Xylia dolabriformis) arc found in the south of the District, where the climate is drier. Considerable quantities of ' unreserved ' woods are extracted, principally from un- classed forests ; of these the most important are in (Difiterocarpus tuberculatum ingyin [Pentacme siamensis), kanyinbyu {Dipterocarpus alatus), and yamane {Gmelina arbored). Bamboos and canes are also obtained in large quantities. The minor forest produce consists of shaw (Stereulia sp.), indwe, and pwenyet. A little cutch is extracted in the south, and small quantities of lac are found near Banmauk.

Owing to the accessibility of the Irrawaddy and Meza forests, most of the valuable teak was extracted from them before annexation. Large trees are now scarce in these areas, and where found prove difficult of extraction, and in many of the Reserves the growing stock consists mainly of coppice or stool shoots springing from the old stumps. There are some teak taungya plantations and a little experi- mental cultivation of rubber in the Mohnyin Reserve.

The total forest receipts in 1903-4 amounted to about 4! lakhs. It is impossible to give exact figures of either the revenue or the area of unclassed forests, in consequence of the fact that the District boundaries and those of forest divisions do not coincide.


Gold, copper, iron, and lead are found. A gold-mine was worked for some years at Kyaukpazat by an English company, but the reef has been worked out and the mine is now closed. The company had a capital of Rs. 12,000, and used the cyanide process, with a crushing plant of ten stamps. Gold- washing is still carried on locally in the beds of streams in many parts of the Wuntho subdivision, and in some places in Banmauk. Little is known as to the return obtained, but it appears to be very small. This part of the country was formerly known as the Shwe ('golden') country, three divisions of which were recognized : the Shwe Ashe Gyaung, the Shwe Ale Gyaung, and the Shwe Anauk Gyaung, the two first being within Katha District. They were not continuous tracts, but included many scattered villages where revenue used to be paid in gold, and whose thugyis were called shwehmus. Iron is found in small particles in the beds of streams at Thanthonda, Gananma, Gananbwa, and Taman in the Wuntho subdivision, but there is little or no trade in local iron now. Lead occurs at Mawka, Mawhaing, and Mawkwin, and used to be dag out of pits from 20 to 60 feet deep, which are, however, not worked at present. Copper is found at Sigadaung and, like lead, was at one time extracted, but the mines have been closed for many years. Jade occurs at Mawlu, and soap- stone of inferior quality in the Katha. township. A small quantity of salt is produced, principally from brine-wells in the Mawlu and Pinlebu townships.

Trade and communications

Katha possesses no arts or manufactures. The greater part of the population are dependent on agriculture, supplementing their earnings by other kinds of manual labour in the dry season. From Pinlebu and Banmauk a considerable number communications. of persons go every year to work at the jade- mines. After agriculture the extraction of timber is the most important industry. Three European firms are at present engaged in the timber business in different parts of the District, in addition to a number of minor contractors. A steam saw-mill at Kalon, on the west bank of the Irrawaddy, 22 miles south of Katha. town, employs about twenty-two persons. The only other industrial enterprise which employed steam- power was the Kyaukpazat gold-mine, now closed. Pickled tea of two kinds, known respectively as paungthi and pyaokt/ii, is made in the west ; gold-washing and salt-boiling are both practised on a small scale ; and the manufacture of cart-wheels and the making of sandals and straw hats are other minor industries.

Timber, bamboos, cane and other minor forest produce, and paddy are the principal exports. The trade in timber consists of teak, in, and ingytn, and a few other ' unreserved ' woods, which are rafted down the Kaukkwe, Meza, and Shweli streams into the Irrawaddy, and go by this route to Mandalay, the railway being utilized occasionally from Kadu, about 5 miles along the line south-west of Mohnyin. Con- siderable quantities of paddy are exported by Burmese brokers by rail and river, principally to Mandalay, for milling. The collecting centres on the railway are Wuntho, Kawlin, and Mohnyin, which are within easy reach of the large rice-growing areas : namely, Tigyaing on the Irrawaddy and Kywegawgyi on the Meza. Timber in rafts and paddy in boats are also sent down the Mu from Pinlebu ; and a fair amount of cured and dried fish from the riverain villages leaves Katha. by rail for Mogaung and the jade-mines, and by road for the west of the District and the Upper Chindwin. A small trade in pickled tea is carried on in the Wuntho subdivision, where it is grown and manufactured. The main imports are hardware for agricultural imple- ments and house-building purposes, cotton twist and yarn, cotton piece- goods, silk and cotton waistcloths and handkerchiefs of both European and Burmese manufacture, Japanese umbrellas, crockery and plated ware, jaggery, til or gingelly and kerosene oil, and salt of both European and Shwebo manufacture.

The Sagaing-Myitkyina railway cuts through the District in a north- easterly direction for 115 miles, traversing the most important rice growing tracts, with stations at Kawlin, Wuntho, Indaw, Mawlu, Mohnyin, and other places. A branch line, 15 miles long, runs from Naba south-eastwards to Katha, connecting the main line with the Irrawaddy.

In the eastern part of the District the Irrawaddy forms the chief means of communication. The Irrawaddy Flotilla Company runs regular services of mail and cargo steamers up and down the river, and a daily ferry steamer between Katha and Bhamo connects with the railway at Katha.

The Public Works department maintains 1S5 miles of road, mostly unmetalled. The principal tracks are : Indaw to Mansi, passing through Banmauk, 61 miles, unmetalled; Wuntho to Pinlebu, 41 miles, unmetalled ; Kawlin to Tawma, 30 miles, metalled in places only; Wuntho to Singon, 17 miles, and Wuntho to Taungmaw, n miles, metalled in places only. The District fund, which is small, maintains only one unmetalled road, from Tigyaing to Manle.


For purposes of administration the District is divided into three subdivisions : Katha, comprising the townships of Katha, Tigyaing, Mawlu, and Indaw ; Wuntho, comprising the town- . . ships of Wuntho, Kawlin, and Pinlebu ; and the subdivision and township of Banmauk. Subordinate to the township officers are 530 village headmen. In addition to the subdivisional and township officers, the Deputy-Commissioner is assisted by a treasury officer, who is also sub-registrar, an akunwun (in subordi- nate charge of the revenue administration), and a superintendent of land records, who has under him 5 inspectors and 34 surveyors. The Public Works department is represented by an Assistant Engineer under the Executive Engineer in charge of the Myitkyina division.

The Deputy-Commissioner, subdivisional officers, and township officers preside over the District, subdivisional, and township courts. Under the Kachin Hill Tribes Regulation, 1895, which is in force in the hill tracts of the District, the District Magistrate is Sessions Judge. Crime generally is infrequent and no class of offence is exceptionally common. In the Kachin Hills, however, a good deal of opium smuggling takes place, which is difficult to check, and a few large seizures of opium brought in from China through Bhamo have been made in recent years. The opium habit is prevalent in most parts oPthe District, as is frequently the case in malarious tracts.

The revenue system is at present at a stage of transition. On culti- vated land which has been surveyed, land revenue is for the present assessed at rates varying from 4 annas to Rs. 1-8-0 per acre, the average assessment being about 10 annas. On unsurveyed land, revenue is assessed at one-eighth of the gross produce, commuted at rates which are fixed annually. The incidence of this form of taxation is slightly heavier than that by acre rates. In the surveyed portions the average size of a holding is a little over 4 acres. A special survey is now being made which will include most of the unsurveyed but cultivated land. The settlement is in progress, and the operations have by now reached an advanced stage.

The following table shows, in thousands of rupees, the fluctuations in the revenue since 1891-2, the first year for which statistics for the District as now constituted are available : —

Katha district2.png

Thathameda brought in Rs. 3,65,000 in 1903-4, and till the settle- ment rates have been introduced will continue to be the main source of revenue.

The District fund, administered by the Deputy-Commissioner for the upkeep of roads, dak bungalows, &e., had an income of Rs. 15,700 in 1903-4, the chief item of expenditure being public works (Rs. 5,400). No municipalities have been constituted.

The civil police force is in charge of a District Superintendent, and is divided into three subdivisional charges corresponding with the civil administrative subdivisions, Katha, Wuntho, and Banmauk. The first is an Assistant District Superintendent's subdivision, the two latter are inspectors' charges. An inspector is also attached to the force at District head-quarters. There are 9 police stations and 9 outposts. The sanctioned strength of the force, excluding the superior officers, is 7 head constables, 23 sergeants, and 268 constables. This includes 2 Kachin police, who, while nominally attached to the police stations, actually live in the hills.

The military police are a detachment of the Shwebo battalion, under an assistant commandant, who has his head-quarters at Katha town. The strength is 368 men, of whom 128 are stationed at Katha, the remainder being distributed at the various township head-quarters.

The District jail at Katha has accommodation for 87 prisoners. The principal industries carried on are grinding wheat for the military police, and carpentry and cane-work to supply the needs of the various Government offices. There is no public demand for jail-made*articles, but the surplus produce of the jail garden is sold in the bazar. The standard of education is, all things considered, fairly high. In 1 90 1 about 40 per cent, of the males and 2 per cent, of the females enumerated were able to read and write, the proportion for both sexes being 21 per cent. Of the 309 schools in the District in 1904, 2 were secondary, 53 primary, and 254 elementary (private); and the total attendance was 4,142 pupils, of whom 224 were girls. All are purely vernacular schools, and none is entirely supported by Government or municipal funds. The expenditure on education in 1903-4 was Rs. 2,400, derived entirely from Provincial funds.

There are 2 civil hospitals, with accommodation for 42 in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 15,970, including 699 in- patients, and 227 operations were performed. The income was made up of Rs. 4,900 from Provincial funds and Rs. 850 from subscriptions. Out-patients are treated in 3 military police hospitals, the total for 1903 being 2,341. There are also 2 railway dispensaries. Quinine in pice packets is sold only by the post offices, sales through the agency of village headmen having been a failure.

Vaccination is not compulsory in any part of the District, and makes but little progress. In t 903-4 the number of persons vaccinated was only 2,315, or 13 per 1,000 of the population.

Personal tools