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This article has been extracted from



Note: National, provincial and district boundaries have changed considerably since 1908. Typically, old states, ‘divisions’ and districts have been broken into smaller units, and many tahsils upgraded to districts. Some units have since been renamed. Therefore, this article is being posted mainly for its historical value.


(Burmese, Thaungdut). — Shan State within the limits of the Upper Chindwin District, Upper Burma, over which the Deputy- Commissioner of that District exercises a certain control. It lies almost wholly to the west of the Irrawaddy, between 24° 5' and 24° 56 N. and 94° 22' and 94° 43' E. On the north it is bounded by the Homalin township ; on the west by jNIanipur ; and on the east and south by the townships of Paungbyin and Tamu. The main hill system of the Upper Chindwin District commences in the extreme north of the State, and covers the greater portion of it ; between this range and Manipur is the upper end of the Kabaw valley, in which the old capital of Thaungdut is situated. A few hamlets lie in this valley, but otherwise the popula- tion of the State is confined almost entirely to the villages on the Chindwin, one of which is the cajiital, Thaungdut (population, 868).

The rest of the country is dense forest. Previous to annexation Hsawnghsup had been a vassal State of Burma, and the Savvbwa ruling in 1886 was friendly to the British, and remained loyal throughout the A\'untho rebellion, although related to the A\\mtho Sawbwa. The area of the State is about 579 square miles, and the population (estimated at 6,200 in 1897) was found to be 7,471 in 1901. Of this total, 57 per cent. are Shans, 35 per cent. Burmans, and the remainder Chins, the whole being distributed in 84 villages. Under the Sawbwa are niyo-oks in charge of townships, who are responsible for the revenue, civil, and criminal administration of their charges. Regular taxes were first imposed in 1890, and under the present Sawbwa thathameda is levied at Rs. 10 per household. There are no other taxes. The revenue amounts to about Rs. 8,000, Rs. 400 being payable as tribute to the British Government. Order is kept by a force of about 30 police, armed with guns and das. There is a small export of paddy.

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