This is a collection of articles archived for the excellence of their content.
Apprehensions among the Tribal Gujjar and Bakerwal communities of North-western Himalayas of Indian subcontinent are growing high that they may lose the rare breed of Bakerwali Dog due to a number of reasons. The tribals are exceedingly worried that the oldest variety of mastiff which protects big herd of livestock during bi-annual seasonal tribal migration may become a part of history in the nearest future as the population of this rear breed is declining rapidly .
The dog is a world-wide known breed of vegetarian dog and is considered to be among the rarest herding mastiffs in view of their power and honesty. It only feeds on milk and bread made of maize or Phak (an outer part of a type of rice) . The tribals knowingly serve only vegetarian food to their dogs as it helps them keep away from attacking the flock for want of meat.
Origin of Bakerwali Dog
Some scientists say that this is an oldest herding dog originating in Central Asia. While others are of the view that this breed is an outcome of Tibetan Mastiff and the Indian Dog. Some trace its origin in India only saying that this is an oldest Indian Dog which surviving since centuries with the Gujjar tribe.
In some works of history, this dog is shown as an ancient working breed found in the Hindukush, and Himalayan belt of Indian subcontinent , where it has been bred for many centuries by the Gujjar/ Bakerwal nomadic tribes as a livestock guardian and settlement protector.
Some historian trace the origin of Bakerwali Dog to some 3000 year back. This dog is much older than many dogs suggested as relatives to the breed. The animal annalists define the lineage of Bakerwali Dog with some older breeds of Molosser including the Hyrcanian Mastiff, the Molossus tis Epirou, the Sylvan, the Tuvan Sheepdog, the Siah Sag, and the Iranian Sage Mazandarani and their descendants.
Largest population of this Bakerwali Dog species is found in Indian side of Jammu and Kashmir and they are in good numbers in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir besides frontier areas of Pakistan.
They also exist in some areas of Afghanistan. According to a raw idea around less than a 1000 pure Bakerwali dogs are still surviving in upper reaches as against 10,000 population in 90s.
Characteristics of Bakerwali dog
Bakerwali Dog has a large in body. Commonly known for its deep-chest, muscular and agility, the Gujjar/Bakerwal sheepdog has a straight back, broad shoulders and long legs. The body is strongly boned, with a powerful neck and large head.
Threats to Bakerwali dog
The nomadic Gujjars and Bakerwals of Jammu and Kashmir are losing the rarest of rare traditional and indigenous species of world famous “Bakerwali Dog” and they are asking that this dog may be given the status of endangered species .
In next few decades, the rugged, courageous and serious, this shepherd dog will become history as this is among the most threatened species in the world.
The population of the dog started declining gradually since 1970 when some of the people of the tribe relinquished their nomadic life, sheep, goats and dogs owing to various reasons and settled at various places.
After 1990 a steep decline in population of Bakerwal Dog was observed as a number of dogs were killed during insurgency/conflict in the State in higher reaches of the State. During the gunfights many dogs were killed by the militants or the security forces when they were interrupted during night operations..
Low productive issue
Another interesting part of their decline is their low productivity/ population tendency. The Bakerwali shepherd bitch which gives birth to a pup only once in a year that too less in number.
It gives one to four pups as compared to other breeds which gives birth to as many as twelve pups simultaneously in a year.
Bakerwali Dog in Indian Market
Owing to less number , the Bakerwals /Gujjars do not sell these Dogs to anybody. with the result they are stolen from higher reaches and taken illegally out of the state to be sold . The approximate rate of this dog is between 75000 to Rs.150000 or above keeping in view the appearance of the dog.
Age and health
The Bakerwali dog has a natural life that averages between 12 and 15 years. After death Bakerwal/ Gujjars bury the dog in nearby area. Barring minor throat infections the breed being tough generally stand firm against all type of sickness.
Powerful Bakerwali dogs
A Bakerwali dog is extremely courageous with a power to kill a lion, a tiger or a bear alone. This dog can fight with an animal larger in double than itself. The breed cannot attack any human being during migration in the day light especially in thickly populated areas.
But in night they can kill a human being without giving any alarm to him/her if he/she enters into the flock area they guarding of. One Dog can guard nearly 300 to 500 sheep/ goats/horses.
Folk-lore about Bakerwali dog
A number of folk tales are popular among Gujjars and Bakerwals which narrate the bravery sagas of this dog. There is a belief among Gujjars/ Bakerwals that if the dog starts crying or weeping in the night, it is believed that the owner of the dog or some family members may face a great trouble in nearest future including the threat of life. If dog is reluctant to move on the occasion of start of annual migration, it is believed that they may face a big disaster in the year.
Its bark is a very high and authoritative in tone tune, which is a main tactics of this Dog to warn away predators and avoid first confrontation. This is the most active breed which can guard the livestock 24X7 without taking even a short sleep. This dog is very intelligent and inflexible to a fault.
As family dogs they are considered as an excellent companions due to their extra ordinary alertness .
The Gujjars / Bakerwals treat this Dog like a family member and give them due attentions as and when required.
( The author is a tribal researcher)
Dog bites, strays and court judgements
2015: 271 Delhiites bitten every day
India Today, March 9, 2016
271 Delhiites bitten everyday by dogs
At least 271 persons in the national capital were bitten by dogs on an average everyday in the past one year, Rajya Sabha was told.
98,965 cases of dog bite were reported during the last one year in Delhi while the figure for cases of monkey bite stood at 1490, according to the statistics presented by Minister of State for Home Affairs Haribhai Chaudhury. The maximum number of dog bites were reported from areas under the East Delhi Municipal Corporation (EDMC) whereas North Delhi Municipal Corporation (NDMC) reported maximum monkey bites.
Such cases were at the lowest in the NDMC area which houses Parliament House, buildings of all the ministries, Supreme court, High court and residences of Supreme court judges, senior bureaucrats and senior military officers. "The Delhi Cantonment Board has informed that it has taken necessary action like controlling the population of biting animals and provision of necessary treatments.
"Three MCDs (South, North and East) and NDMC have informed that action is taken as per the Animal Birth Control (Dog) Rules, 2001 and monkey catchers have been deployed for catching and rehabilitating them at Asola Wildlife Sanctuary," Chaudhury said in his response.
2017, Delhi: 9 dog bite cases every hour
The capital has witnessed over 40,000 cases of dog bites this year alone, translating to over 200 cases daily or nine cases every hour.
In the first half of this year, north corporation has reported over 23,459 cases at its hospitals and dispensaries, while east Delhi has seen16,488 cases at anti-rabies clinics. The work of sterilising dogs has been mostly outsourced to NGOs, which charge Rs 500-750 per dog.
Despite spending a heavy budget annually , the number of dog attacks is not coming down.Last December, dog bite cases at anti-rabies clinics of the three civic bodies were over 80,000, while in 2015 the number was above 78,000. The actual number of stray dogs on the city's streets is not known. “The last pan-Delhi survey was conducted by the erstwhile unified MCD in 2009 in which the number of stray dogs was over 5.6 lakh. The number must have increased in the ensuing years,“ said an EDMC official.
A survey conducted by NGO Humane Society International in 2016 showed that south Delhi alone has over 1.89 lakh strays. “The civic bodies have floated tenders several times, but failed to get a response. It is very difficult to put an exact figure on the stray population,“ the official added. Interestingly , south Delhi has reported only 893 cases of dog bites this year. Last year's count was 2,650. Officials argue that the low count is due to lesser number of people approaching the municipal dispensaries preferring private clinics and hospitals.
There are only 13 sterilisation centres under the three corporations. While SDMC has 12 sterilisation centres, north corporation has just one.EDMC has none.
North and east corporations are in the process of opening five more centres.
NGOs argue that strays are being unnecessarily targeted.Gauri Maulekhi from People for Animals Trust said, “So many dog bites can't be attributed to strays. A study in Kerala showed that a large number of people were bitten by pet dogs. Infrastructure for sterilisation commensurate to the problem should be built and area-wise targets should be fixed.“
Feeding strays entails duty to curb their nuisance: HC
Ensure They Aren't A Nuisance, Says Court
Feeding and taking care of stray dogs also involves the duty to ensure that they don't become a nuisance for other residents in the neighbourhood, the Delhi high court said.
The court prohibited two people from chaining, feeding or sheltering stray dogs in the driveway of their property .
It also said that they must make sure that the dogs don't defecate there.
The observation was made last week after a man moved the court complaining that two of his neighbours had given shelter to stray dogs in their building and chained them.
“We rue the lack of civic sense and concern exhibited by the respondents towards their fellow inhabitants. Their concern for the stray dogs also appears superficial to us and lacks commitment. Otherwise, the dogs would not have been left in such an unhygienic and filthy condition, as appears from the photographs on record,“ a bench justices Vipin Sanghi and Rekha Palli said, directing the SHO of Malviya Nagar to comply with its order.
The bench added, “If the respondents have taken upon themselves the task of feeding the dogs and ta king care of them...thereby attracting the stray dogs within the said property ...it is also their duty to ensure that the dogs do not cause any nuisance for other residents within the same property and in the neighbourhood“.
Referring to the photographs submitted by the petitioner, the court said “nuisance caused by the conduct of the respondents in sheltering the stray dogs in the common driveway is writ large from the photographs placed on record. To a person, who is not accustomed to keeping pet dogs, it also causes fear and discomfort to walk into a property where stray dogs are kept either chained or loose.“
In his plea, petitioner Om Prakash said that he lived in the same building where the neighbours had chained the dogs.
He argued that it was completely unacceptable because the driveway of the said property was not the exclusive property of the respondents, adding that they had no right to tie them in the driveway and “cause immense nuisance and harassment for other residents“.
While the two neighbours argued that the Supreme Court verdict was in their favour and the high court should desist from giving any relief to Prakash, a resident of Khirki Extension, the bench made it clear that the respondents “certainly cannot be permitted to keep the stray dogs in the common driveway of a private property jointly owned by the appellant...and feed them and chain them in the said driveway“.
HC: Feed stray dogs in your own houses
NAGPUR: In a warning to all animal lovers, the Nagpur bench of Bombay high court directed all city authorities, including the police, to register cases against those obstructing civic officials from acting against menacing stray dogs.
A division bench comprising justices Sunil Shukre and Anil Pansare also ordered that feeding of stray dogs shall not be done at any place except animal activists' own homes. "Such feeding and care shall be undertaken by anyone only after formally adopting and registering these dogs with the Nagpur Municipal Corporation (NMC). A penalty shall be imposed for feeding stray dogs out of the houses of feeders."
The bench made it clear that there will be no restriction on the NMC officials to take necessary action against menacing canines either by any rule or judgment. "The authorities are free to capture strays and remove them from the spot on the complaints by the citizens. They will also initiate an awareness programme by circulating the contact details of the 'dog control cell'.
According to the petitioner, this is the first major decision by any HC after the Supreme Court clarified on October 12 that there would be no bar on HCs from hearing the issue of stray dogs.
The directives came while hearing an intervention application filed by Dhantoli Nagrik Mandal. It was filed by social activist Vijay Talewar in 2006 praying for controlling the growing stray menace.
The petitioner had been complaining about the strays in Dhantoli and Congress Nagar areas, but hardly any steps were taken to control it. They named former corporator Lakhan Yerawar who had proactively helped the citizens by catching these dogs and translocating them. However, activists and animal lovers objected quoting SC verdicts and the drive stopped suddenly.
Regulations for dog breeding
The Times of India, Jan 12 2017
Govt issues draft rules to regulate dog-breeding biz
Dog breeders will have to register themselves with state animal welfare boards to be able to continue with their business, according to draft rules issued by the government. Breeders will also have to maintain records of both male and female dogs, their breed, micro-chip number, litters, sale & purchase, death and rehabilitation.
Every dog breeder will also be required to submit an annual report to the state animal welfare board regarding animals sold, traded, bartered, brokered, given away , boarded or exhibited during the year.
These are rules under the draft notification for prevention of cruelty to animals (dog breeding and marketing 2016) released by the ministry of environment, forests and climate change on Tuesday . Comments or objections can be made to the draft within 30 days. “Till now there were no rules in the country on the breeding, sale and purchase of dogs. I hope that the shops and sale and purchase of dogs will be made online,“ said environment minister Anil Madhav Dave.
Non-compliance of the rules will lead to cancellation of the registration of the dog breeder. The government has also laid down conditions regarding the age, medical care, pet-shop licences, recordkeeping and sterilisation of dogs for sale.
Animal rights groups have welcomed the move.“Tens of thousands of dogs are illegally bred in deplorable conditions without proper medical care. Often unweaned puppies less than 2 months of age are sold to unassuming customers without any registration or records.Whelping mothers are impregnated continuously that impacts their and the puppies' health,“ Humane Society International said.
Kanni (Maiden’s Beastmaster)
The Dog Breeding Unit (DBU) of the Animal Husbandry department in Saidapet is set to breed Kanni, also known as the Maiden’s Beastmaster, a rare south Indian sighthound, after 15 years. Puppies will be available for sale in the next three months.
In November 2016, three Kanni puppies — each one month old then — were procured from a breeder in Virudhunagar. Now, the dogs are ready to reproduce. At present, the unit has a male and two female Kannis. In addition, there are seven Rajapalayams — a male and six females — and three Chippiparais — a male and two females.
The DBU will breed dogs as per rules laid down by the central government. Animal husbandry director A Gnanasekaran told TOI that the department has developed a standard operating procedure for the native dog breeding programme. The mating of male and female dogs are allowed only when they are one-and-a-half years old. Incest is avoided and only out mating is done at the unit, he said. To keep the canines healthy, ready-to-eat feed is provided to the Kanni and other breeds twice a day. The quantity is according to their body weight, said Gnanasekaran. The unit maintains a breeding history of all the dogs bred. Treatment sheets are also kept for reference, he said.
The three hound breeds are allowed to socialise in a 5,500sqft play area in the morning and in the evening. The dogs are taken out on a 30-minute routine every day. Tick control measures have been adopted to keep parasites at bay, Gnanasekaran said.
The Security Forces’ dogs
2020: Indian breeds becoming popular
In his August 30 address in Mann Ki Baat, PM Narendra Modi, while praising Indian breed dogs, talked about their induction in security forces. Currently, Indie dogs are serving in the Indian Army and have been deployed by the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) in some areas. Officials training these dogs say they began inducting them last year.
DOGS ARE TRAINED FOR 24 WEEKS
Trainers at these centres say it took them time to develop the confidence that Indian breed dogs can do well in security services. Sandeep Gupta, Commanding Officer, National Training Centre For Dogs (NTCD), says, “In the last five-seven years, it was a mandate of the government to include these dogs, and we were also confident that we’d be able to train them.” The total duration of their training is about 24 weeks, which is the standard training for all dogs. It includes obedience training, explosive sniffing, narcotics sniffing, tracking criminals, assault, patrolling, search and rescue. Sandeep adds, “The kind of training we impart to these dogs is 100% scientific, research-based, and kind (without any physical punishment or force). We treat each dog as an individual and each dog’s learning style is different – same as humans. One method, which is suitable for one dog, may not be suitable for other dogs.”
‘THESE MUDHOL HOUNDS HAVE CHANGED THE RULES OF THE GAME’
CAPF officials point out that Indian dogs are being trained in all areas. Anil Pandey, DIG, CISF, and spokesperson, says, “We’ve procured Mudhol Hound for security at Sriharikota. We will be procuring more Indian breed dogs for security and will deploy them wherever needed.”
ML Ravindra, DIG, CRPF, adds, “After training, we sent the dogs to battalions in naxal affected areas of Chhattisgarh for their field trial. They’ve conducted all regular operations and we observed they’re well suited to the local weather. These dogs are our force multiplier and are on a mission to save precious lives of the troops. Now we are training two Combai, a local breed of Tamil Nadu, and one Pandikona puppy. We will also be training Indian breeds like Bakharwal (Kashmir), Chippiparai (Tamil Nadu), Tangkhul Hui (Manipur) and other Indian breeds on pilot project basis.” ITBP has also deployed Indian Mudhol Hounds in Chhattisgarh, and officials say, “These Mudhol Hounds have changed the rules of the game. In dense jungles they can detect any human presence from a distance of many hundreds of meters in upwind conditions. This means that even a small movement of naxals, thousands of meters away from ITBP patrols, is indicated by these Indian Hounds.”
INDIAN BREED CANINES
that are mostly procured by security forces include: Mudhol Hound Chippiparai Kanni Caravan Hound Rajapalayam Rampur Hound
INDIE DOGS VS FOREIGN BREEDS
When asked to compare foreign breeds and Indian breeds, a dog expert said, “It’s like comparing apples and oranges. Both have their own positives and negatives.” However, the expert says what works in favour of Indie dogs include facts like “they are are low-maintenance, can survive in hot weather, and can walk for miles”. Highlighting the different characteristics, ML Ravindra, DIG CRPF, adds, “While patrolling, tracking, explosive detection, guarding are the core work areas of Mudhol Hounds (an Indian breed), when compared to Belgian Malinois (a popular breed for forces), they are relatively less efficient when it comes to assault.”
INDUCTION OF INDIAN BREED DOGS IN SECURITY FORCES
While these dogs have been used for shepherding and guarding agricultural land for years, their induction in security forces is relatively new. In 2017, the Indian Army started training Indian breed canines that are currently serving in the Army. Himalayan sheepdogs are also used by the Border Security Force (BSF) for security. The BSF, Central Industrial Security Force (CISF), Indo Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) and Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) are training Indian breed dogs for duty.
Societal, legal protection
‘India has some of the most pro-dog laws’
Why Mumbai's reaction to `blue dogs' isn't that stray
India's financial capital turns out to be a pretty good place to be a dog. The poorest people living on the streets in Mumbai barely have enough food themselves, but they feed strays.And the rich, well, some go completely overboard.
One Bollywood actress provides steaming vessels of chicken and rice every morning for dozens of neighborhood dogs. Another woman drives around in a specially outfitted car delivering meals to more than 100, sprinkling in special spices depending on the season.(Turmeric is good during the monsoons, she says, to help boost the dogs' immunity .)
[Indpaedia points out: According to Vaastu there is merit in feeding dogs, including strays.]
India has some of the most pro-dog laws on the planet. It is illegal here to kill healthy strays, and the result is millions of them -perhaps as many as 30 million across the country . Packs of dogs trot through the parks, hang around restaurants for scraps (which they usually get), and sprawl on their bellies inside railway stations as rushing commuters leap over them.
That's not necessarily a good thing. It is no coincidence that India also leads the world in deadly rabies cases.In Kerala, vigilantes saw strays as such a threat that they began methodically hunting dogs down until last November, when the Supreme Court ordered them to stop.
More typically , though, the dogs are widely cared for.Some people won't even call them strays, preferring the more respectful label of “community dogs“. And within India, Mumbai is considered something of a sanctuary city for them…
A dye company had released products into a drainage ditch that flowed into a Mumbai river where [stray] dogs liked to play .Colouring matter for clothing had stained the dogs' fur [blue], and the monsoon rains soon blasted it off.
What was interesting -and moving -was the community efforts to rally around the blue dogs and help them. “India is pretty unique,“ said Ingrid Newkirk, the British-American co-founder of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, who grew up in India.“Maybe it's a karmic sense, this idea that the dog could be you and if you don't watch out in life it could be you again. “Or,“ she wondered, “maybe it's just that the poor have greater compassion because they can relate to other individuals who are having a hard time trying to survive.“
The neighbourhood where this happened, Taloja, about an hour's drive east of central Mumbai, is heavily industrialised…
Still, Taloja is teeming with canines, and the line between a stray and a pet is blurry . Factory workers and villagers feed certain dogs and even buy shampoo to wash them. But the dogs don't live inside homes and are free to roam around.
Most of India's street dogs descended from an ancient breed related to the Australian dingo.
After some factory workers spotted a pack of dogs that were bright blue, Taloja sprang into action.
Workers called a neighbourhood human rights activist who then called a neighborhood animal rights advocate who then called a nearby animal hospital. An ambulance was rushed to the scene. A few days later, in another incident near a factory , villagers waded into a ditch coursing with nitric acid and rescued a dog that was trapped.
Niharika Kishan Gandhi, the wealthy woman who feeds 100 dogs from the back of her car in suburban Mumbai, took a stab at answering the question of why Indians, in general, seem especially friendly to animals. “It comes down to tolerance,“ she said.
As for the blue dog, all the vitals were checked. After five days of observation, he (the dog was a male, about 8 years old) was discharged in good health.
HC guidelines on feeding them
Street dogs/strays have the right to food and citizens have the right to feed them, the Delhi high court has said, adding that “no person can restrict the other from feeding dogs” as long as due care and caution is taken.
Laying down guidelines for the local RWAs and societies to follow on feeding strays – an issue that often sees ugly flare-ups in Delhi – the HC said any person having compassion for stray dogs can feed them at their private entrance or driveway of their house or any other place not shared with other residents, but no one can restrict the other from feeding of dogs, until and unless it is causing harm or harassment to them.
“Community dogs (stray) have the right to food and citizens have the right to feed community dogs but in exercising this right, care and caution should be taken to ensure that it does not impinge upon the rights of others.”
Duty of animal welfare board, RWAs to provide designated area for feeding: HC
While feeding the strays, care and caution should be taken to ensure that it does not impinge upon the rights or cause any harm, hindrance, harassment and nuisance to other individuals or members of the society,” Justice J R Midha observed in a recent verdict. The HC was dealing with a dispute over feeding of strays between two neighbours but realised it was a much larger problem that needed to be tackled.
While laying down guidelines to reduce scope of friction in colonies/societies, the HC said it is the duty of the Animal Welfare Board of India and local RWAs to ensure and keep in mind the fact that community dogs live in “packs” and care should be taken that each “pack” ideally has different designated areas for feeding even if that means designating multiple areas in a locality.
“It shall be the duty and obligation of every RWA or municipal corporation (in case RWA is not available) to ensure that every community dog in every area has access to food and water in the absence of caregivers or community dog feeders in the said area. All law enforcement authorities shall ensure that no harassment or hindrance is caused to the person feeding street dogs at the designated feeding spot,” the court further noted.
Justice Midha stressed that street dogs perform the role of guard dogs and community scavengers even as they provide companionship to those who feed them and act as their stress relievers. The HC said corporations and police must step in to ensure that no hindrance is caused to the care-givers or feeders of community dogs and every canine has access to food and water in the absence of care-givers.
It said community dogs have to be fed at areas designated by the AWBI in consultation with RWAs or civic bodies since every community dog is a territorial being and they must be fed and tended to at places within their territory. It said the corporations, at the request of the RWA or local authority or volunteer, shall be responsible for having the stray dogs vaccinated or sterilised and the canines shall return to the same area and they cannot be removed by the municipality.
Justice Midha said that street dogs perform the role of guard dogs & community scavengers & even provide companionship to those who feed them daily and act as their stress relievers
Theodore Baskaran’s guidebook
Theodore Baskaran’s guide to a subject that merits attention
There is an interesting story in naturalist S. Theodore Baskaran’s The Book of Indian Dogs. Chippiparai, a native of Tamil Nadu, is one among the Indian breeds that was inducted into a police squad in Tiruchi in 1974. The dog helped nab a thief from his hideout following a scent trail. But the judge would not accept the findings as evidence because they came from a country dog.
If that incident bears testimony to how native breeds are viewed, another explains the lack of breeding standards for Indian dogs, which is necessary to get recognition for them in international kennel clubs.
The introduction of exotic dogs and the dilution in the bloodline of Indian breeds caused by inbreeding poses a great challenge to evolving breed standards. Individuals who keep native breeds disagree with one another on the breed standard. Since the government also remains indifferent, no sincere attempts have been made to scientifically study native dogs.
Mr. Baskaran, a former Chief Postmaster General, took initiatives to produce postage stamps of four Indian breeds — Mudhol hound, Rajapalayam, Rampur hound and Himalayan sheepdog — points out even the pioneering attempt to set standards for Rajapalayam and Chippipaprai dogs by the National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources (NBAGR) was discontinued.
Tracing the history of Indian dogs through references in literature, stone carvings, rock and wall paintings and accounts of British and other colonial officers, Mr. Baskaran says depictions of hunting parties accompanied by dogs in rock paintings at Stone Age sites in Tamil Nadu have provided clear evidence that dogs were domesticated as early as the Stone Age. “From India comes the dog that is larger than others,” he says, quoting Pliny the Elder.
The book, probably the first comprehensive guide to Indian dog breeds, gives details about most of the native breeds, classifying them as working dogs, companion dogs and hounds. Mr. Baskaran has also dedicated a chapter to stray dogs and rabies.
“Historians have recorded that Indian hounds were exported to Rome and to Egypt,” points out Mr. Baskaran. “Sadly, some of the Indian dogs have already disappeared due to indifference. This is unfortunate, especially given that in ancient times, they were much prized around the world. Old travel accounts tell us that dogs from India were sent to Babylon.”