Defence Research And Development: India

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Defence Research And Development: India

Defence Research and Development Organisation

DRDO is the R&D wing of the Ministry of Defence, with a vision to empower India with cutting-edge defence technologies. Its mission is to achieve self-reliance in critical defence technologies and systems, by indigenisation and innovation, while equipping the armed forces with state-of-the-art weapon systems and equipment. DRDO came into existence in 1958 with the amalgamation of Technical Development Establishment (TDEs) of Indian Army and Directorate of Technical Development & Production (DTD&P) with Defence Science Organisation (DSO). DRDO is headed by the Scientific Advisor to Raksha Mantri (Defence Minister) (SA to RM), who is also the Secretary, Department of Defence R&D and Director General R&D. Dr D S Kothari, eminent scientist and educationist was the first to head the organisation. The SA to RM is supported by eight Chief Controllers. The corporate headquarter of DRDO is at DRDO Bhawan, an environment friendly building located at Rajaji Marg, New Delhi.

The Organisation has two tier structure. viz, the Corporate Hqrs at New Delhi, and laboratories establishments, regional centres, field stations, etc., across the length and breadth of the country. DRDO Hqrs, under the Department of Defence Research & Developmnt, is organized into two sets of Directorates, i.e., the Corporate Directorates and the Technical Directorates. The laboratories, based on their corecompetence, are classfied into eight clusters. The labs under each cluster are supported by respective technical directorates, namely, the directorates of Aeronautics, Armaments, Combat Vehicles and Engineering, Electronics and Computer Sciences, Materials, Missiles, Naval Research and Development and Life Sciences, in terms of obtaining approvals of new projects from the Government, improving their infrastructure, creating new facilities, facilitate in monitoring and review of ongoing projects and also to co-ordinate with other laboratories and directorates. These Directorates act for the labs as 'single window' to the R&D Hqr, and the Government of India.

The five technical directorates of Industry Interface and Technology Management, Interaction with Services for Business, International Cooperation, Technology Acquisition, Civil Works and Estates and the Technical Examination Cell further support the labs in matters common to all labs. The Scientific Advisers to Chief of the Army Staff (COAS), Chief of the Air Staff (CAS), Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS) and Deputy Chief of Integrated Defence Staff also act as Technical Directors to render services to their respective Chiefs.

The Corporate Directorates , namely, the directorates of Budget Finance & Accounts, Extramural Research & Intellectual Property Rights, Human Resource development, Management Services, Materials Management, Personnel, Planning & Coordination, Public Interface, Rajbhasha and OM, and Vigilance & Security, carry out planning and management of resources and facilitate the linkage with the other Government ministries and departments. They help laboratories in financial management, inducting manpower, training and career development, planning and coordination of ongoing projects, handling Parliament Questions, image building activities such as disseminating information regarding the programs/ policies/ accomplishment of DRDO to media, academic and students community as well as the public at large, etc.

The Recuritment and Assessment Centre (RAC) undertakes fresh recruitment of scientists at various levels and conducts assessments for promotions of scientists on periodic basis. The Centre for Personnel Talent Management (CEPTAM) is responsible for induction and training of "Technical and Other Staff" of the organisation.

DRDO has the following responsibilities.

l Design, development and lead to production of state-of-art Sensors, Weapon Systems, Platforms and allied equipment (Strategic systems, Tactical systems, Dual Use Technologies).

l Research in Life Sciences, to optimize combat effectiveness and promote their well-being especially in harsh environment.

l Develop infrastructure and highly trained Manpower for strong defence technology base.

DRDO formulates and executes programmes of scientific research, design & development in areas relevant to national security. It also functions as the nodal agency for the execution of major Defence related programmes with the national scientific institutions, PSUs and private agencies. It has led to the production of world class weapon systems and equipment in accordance with requirements laid down by the three Services. In addition DRDO assists the Services by rendering technical advice on matters such as formulation of Staff Requirements, evaluation of systems to be acquired, fire & explosive safety, mathematical/statistical analysis of operational problems etc.

The following facts give a glimpse of the structure and dimensions of DRDO.

l Total No. of Labs/Estts: 52

l Training Institutes: CEPTAM (Delhi), DIAT (Pune), ITM, (Mussoorie)

l Integrated Test Ranges: 2

l Total strength (as on 01 July 2011) 27,796

l Scientists: 7,854

l Technical personnel : 10,139

l Others: 9,803

l Def. R&D Expenditure 2010-11 (Rs in Crore) 10,149.71

l Def. R&D Budget 2011-12 (Rs in Crore) 10,253.17

lOffical websites http//


lOfficial Contact Person Director - Public Interface

Phone: 911123011073


In terms of tangible outputs, DRDO has developed a wide range of strategic and tactical weapon systems and complex technologies associated with such systems. The value of production orders placed on DRDO developed systems stands at over Rs 1,20,000 crore. However, the production value of the DRDO products is by no means the only measure of impact of these developments on the nation's defence capabilities. Many of these systems could not be imported or developed jointly with any other country in the era of embargoes and technology denials. The developed countries with advanced militarily technologies offer licensed prodution of those systems that are obsolete for them, with barely any technology transfer.

Successful indigenous development and production of strategic systems and platforms such as Agni and Prithvi series of missiles, nuclear powered submarine- Arihant, Light Combat Aircraft-Tejas, etc. have given quantum jump to India's military might, generating effective deterrence and providing crucial leverage and marking India's entry into the elite club of countries possessing such technologies. Major contributions from each cluster of DRDO in terms of Products & Systems Developed/Accepted/Inducted, Technologies Developed and infrastructure facilities established are delineated in the following table :


Technology Products & Systems Developed/ Technologies Developed and Cluster/Area Accepted/ Inducted Infrastructures Facilities established LCA (Tejas) MK-I was indigenously designed, developed and produced Light Combat Aircraft.

Achieved Initial Operational Clearance (IOC). Its eleven prototypes have completed 1650 flights. The Final Operational Clearance (FOC) is expected by Dec 2012.

In additional to this, as a strategy towards long-term self-reliance in Air-power, design development and production of its advanced version (LCA Mk-II) has also been undertaken. The first prototype of naval variant of LCA made its maiden flight schedule in 2011. The other maiden flight schedule in 2011.

The other success stories are '

Lakshya'-the Pilotless Target Aircraft, 'Nishant' & 'RUSTOM' unmanned aerial Vehicles, Electronic Warfare Suites, Radar Warning Receivers (RWR) including High Accuracy Direction Finder (HADF), Mission Computers and avionics upgrades for several fighter aircrafts.

Missile Approach warning System and Laser Warning System have been developed and are being fitted on various Military aircrafts and helicopters.

Kaveri - India's first indigeneous gas turbine engine has completed official Altitude test of 73 hrs in Russia. As a spin-off, variants of Kaveri engine are being developed for propulsion of marine vessels and power generation. Sudarshan, a laser seeker kit for converting 1000lb bombs into laser guided bombs was developed and demonstrated.

A medium sized Acrostat based platform has been developed for surveillance applications. India's first indigenous Airborne Early Warning & Control Syste mhit the skies on December 6, 2011.

Large number of armaments designed and developed by DRDO have been inducted in the armed forces. Over a million pieces of 7.62 mm Ishapore Self-Loading Rifle (SLR) developed by DRDO were produced till replaced by 5.56mm INSAS (Indian Small Arms System), another DRDO product. INSAS is available in fixed & foldable butt versions of Assault Rifle & LMG, all firing the same ammunition and having 70% commonality of parts. Multi- Barrel Rocket Launcher System-Pinaka, successfully developed followed by transfer of technology to production agencies.

FSAPDS ammunition, Influence Mines MK-I, Modern Sub-machine carbine (MSMC), Under-Barrel Grenade Launcher

Aeronautical Systems

Armament Systems

A wide range of highly complex technologies have been mastered and massive infrastructure created in the process of development of LCA-Tejas, its sub-systems and the Gas Turbine Engine- Kaveri, Unstable aerodynamics, Flight Control Laws for Unstable Configuration Aircraft, Fly-by-wire Digital Flight Control System, Open Architecture, Mission Avionics, Advanced Composite Structures, Hardware and Saftware for Simulators. Real time flight simulators, Hardware in loop simulators (HILS), test facility for UAVs, Lightning test facility for lightningworthiness of aircraft, Wind tunnel test facility. Cockpit environment facility, National Flight Test Center (NFTC) for testing flight operations, engineering and instrumentation, Full scale engine test facilities.

Advanced Centre for Energetic Materials (ACEM) has been created at Nasik for processing of large rocket motors/ segments. Other major technologies relate Explosive filling for pre-fragmented, Incendiary and Bomblet Warheads; Electric and Electro-hydraulic Launcher, Explosive Reactive Armour (ERA), Pressure & Ribbon casting technique, Artillery rocket launchers & warhead hardware, flow forming tube of Pinaka rocket, Multi Projectile Charge warhead. for INSAS and AK-47 rifle, 84 mm light weight launcher, Multimade Grenade, Bund blasting Device (BBD), Instant fire detection & suppression for BMP-2/2K, 303 inch and 7.62 mm non-lethal bullets, Adrushya mine to immobilize contemporary battle tanks, are examples of wide range of products.

Two regiments of India's first indigenously designed, developed and productionised Main Battle Tank "MBT-Arjun Mk-1" have been raised and inducted in the Army. Development of MBT-Arjun MK II is in advance stage. T-72 Ajeya tanks were upgraded with indigenous technologies and equipped with Explosive Reactive Armour (ERA), Global Positioning System (GPS). Integrated Fire Detection & Suppression System (IFDSS) & reconfigured Smoke Grenade Discharge (SGD) have been produced.

Other major achievements are

BHIM-76-self propelled 155 mm gun, Ex-tank -a combination of T-72 (Ajeya) Chassis and the most advanced MBT Arjun Weapon System, Integrated Arjun Simulator, Bridge Layer Tank based on T-72 & Arjun, SARVATRA- the mobile bridge laying system (upto 75 mm within 100 minutes), Modular bridge SAKAV (46m single span bridge system, MLC70), Carrier Command Post Tracked on BMP II, Armoured Ambulance BMP-II, Armoured Amphibious Dozer, Armoured Engineering Reconnaissance Vehicle, Aircraft Bearinings, Gear Box, PTO shaft Hydro-Pneumatic Suspension for armoured vehicles, Mobile Comouflage System (integrated in MBT Arjun), Remotely Operated Vehicle (Daksh), a robotic vehicle for remotely handling IED, Riot Control Vehicle, Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV), Rotary Engine for UAVs, Trackway Expedient Mat Ground Surfacing, Containerized Operation Theatre Complex on wheels, Ground Support Vehicles for various indigenous strategic and tactical missles, Nishant launcher, Counter Mine Flail (CMF) on T-72 Tank, Snow galleries, Mountain Weather Forecast Models.

Electronic Warfare Systems (EWS): SAMUKTA for Army and SANGRAHA for Navy, SUJAV - a compact communication electrinic warfare suit.

Advanced ESM System (Varuna), Convoy Protection Jammers (SAFARI & STRIDE).

Radars: Indian Doppler Radar INDRA-I & II, Multifunction phased array radar (Rajendra), Low Level Light Weight Radar (Bharani), weapan locating Combat Vehicles & Engineering Electronic & Computer Systems Technology Products & Systems Developed/ Technologies Developed and Cluster/Area Accepted/ Inducted Infrastructures Facilities established Engine Test Facility, Transmission Test Facility.

Fuel Injection Pump Test Rig, Variable Speed Drive Test Facility, Road Wheel Test Rig. Air Cleaner Test Rig. Suspension Test Facility, Hydraulic Test Bench, Universal Gear Tester, Ultrasonic Flaw Detector, Test Facilities for Aircraft Gearbox, Environmental Test Facilities consisting of Low temperature chamber, Driving rain chamber, water immersion chamber, Dust chamber, Mould growth chamber, Salt spray chamber, Shock test machine and Bump test machine, Test Track Facility, Dry heat chamber and Dump heat for evaluation of structural integrity and performance of electronic and electrical equipment.

Rapid prototyping and Prototype manufacturing facilities. Structure Dynamics laboratory and Integrated Laboratory. A National Centre for Automotive Testing (NCAT) at VRDE is equipped with state of the art infrastructure for testing and certification of defence as well as civil vehicles.

Automotive Electro-magnetic Compatibility (EMC) test facility—one of the biggest in the world has been recently added. Virtual Reality Laboratory.

Cold Laboratory and High Altitude Snow Study Centre.

Real Time Satellite Imagery Reception Centre, Snow Chute also have been installed. Technologies for achieving High Accuracy Direction Finding; High Power Jamming; Voice Recognition and Voice Print Analysis; Data/image Fusion, Jam- Resistant Data Links; Satellite Communication; Secrecy Systems, Multifunction electronic scanning radars; Artificial Neural Networks based data Radar, 3D Central Acquisition Radars - Revathi for Navy, Rohini for Airforce, Battle Field Surveillance Radar (BFSR), Active Phased Array Radar (L-Star), Super Vision Maritime Patrol Radar (L-Star), (SV-2000 MPAR).

Communication Systems: Combat Net Radio for Army, Briefcase SATCOM Terminal, Data-link for unmanned aerial vehicle - NISHANT.

Command and Control Systems: Artillery Combat Command Control System (ACCCS), Command Information Decision Support System (CIDSS).

Electro Optics: Electro Optic Fire Control System (EON-51), Palmtop Green Microchip Laser Module. Passive Q-Switching, S-band 130 KW (pulsed) Coupled-cavity TWT, Holographic Sight.

Lasers: Eye Safe Lasers, Light Weight Laser Target Designator (LLTD), Laser Warning Sensor, PRF Code Recognition Device. Safety and efficiency of soldier, the man behind machines under the most diverse battlefield conditions (extremes of cold and heat, mountains, deserts, tropical forests and so on) is a high priority and DRDO has developed many life Support Systems for Armed forces.

Some of these products are Computerized Pilot Selection System (CPSS), Helicopter oxygen system to meet the aircrew oxygen requirement upto 30,000 ft.

Submarine Escape Set for escape from an abandoned submarine from depths of 100m, Combat Free Fall system capable to withstand the harsh conditions of free fall from 30,000 ft, Herbal Anti oxidant supplement, High Altitude adapted & fast growing Broiler Sheep, High medicinal value Mushrooms, high altitude medical products, molecular imaging drugs and enhancers for Armed Forces, long shelf life ready to eat packaged food and appetizers, Bio diesel production, Cold tolerant hybrid vegetables, Genetically engineered cold tolerant vegetables, Hyperbaric oxygen therapy Chamber (Samudrasuta), One man high Altitude Pulmonary Oedema (HAPO) chamber, Heating Gloves & Socks for extreme cold conditions, Self-contained selfheating system to warm, Ready to Eat packed foods at 650C, Bio-digestor for treatment and disposal of human waste for extreme cold is also being introduced in Indian Railway Coaches to avoid soiling of tracks.

Thousands of such biodigesters are being installed in Lakshdweep island and Life Sciences Technology Products & Systems Developed/ Technologies Developed and Cluster/Area Accepted/ Inducted Infrastructures Facilities established Mining, Computer Vision, Virtual Reality and Roboties; parallel processing; GaAs Crystal Growth Facility; Molecular Beam Epitaxy System; Ion- Implantation System; Ion-Implantation system; Electron Beam Micro Lithography system; MOCVD system; Mask Fabrication Facility; Fab line for fabrication of MMIC, UHV Processing Stations; Precision Machining Facilities; Single Point Diamond Turning (SPDT) Micromachining Facility; Infrastructure for EMI/ EMC facility; Optical Component design, fabrication, coating and testing for spherical, aspheric & freeform surface in VIS & IR band upto 1m diameter. Life Support Technologies, Military nurtrition - (fresh and processed foods technologies); Technologies for growing fruits and vegetables in extreme climates including high altitude cold deserts; Military Psychology & Personnel Selection, Manmachine interface, Technology for removal of (fluoride, iron, arsenic) from water, Technology for storage of potatoes under extreme cold, Fully automatic Chapati making machine, zero energy cooling chambers, anti freeze containers, National Germplasm storage facility at high altitude, esterification plant for Biodisel extraction, removal of toxic waste from Jatropha plant seed cake for animal feed and other applications. in houseboats (in lakes), Multi-Insect Repellent DEPA, Avalanche Victim Detector (AVD). AB Class Steel for Naval Applications, Titanium Sponge.

High Temperature Titanium Alloys for Aerospace applications.

Brake pads for Aircrafts.

Investment Casting of turbine components etc., Light weight composite armour for Mi-17-IV helicopter, Jet Fuel Stator castings for TEJAS, Energy efficient Special Phase Change Materials for temperature moderation.

Ultrahigh strength and high fracture toughness DMR-1700 low alloy steel for booster motor casings of missiles. Structural adhesives & sealants, high performance lubricants and greases, microwave absorbing polymer composite. Heavy alloy Armor Penetrator Rods.

Jackal Armor.

Kanchan Armor, Hydraulic Pipeline for Submarine Applications. Surface-to-surface strategic missile systems Agni I (700 km) Agni-II (2000 km) and Agni III (3500 km).

Prithvi series of surfaceto- surface missiles.

These nuclear capable platforms provide effective deterrence and credible second strike capability.

Brahmos Supersonic Cruise Missiles for Army and Navy.Brahmos is the only supersonic cruise missile in the world.

Dhanush-ship launched SS missile.

Akash - multi-directional, multitarget SAM area defence weapon system.

Nag - 3rd generation anti tank missile.

Air Defence System against ballistic missiles of up to 2000 km class, for both exo-atmospheric (80 km altitude) and endo-atmospheric (15 km altitude) interception.

Computerized war games for Army & Air force. Materials Missile & Strategic Systems Technology Products & Systems Developed/ Technologies Developed and Cluster/Area Accepted/ Inducted Infrastructures Facilities established Technology for the production of premium quality Titanium sponge from indigenous raw material developed.

Technology transferred to Kerala Minerals & Metals Ltd, Kollam and 500 TPY capacity plant commissioned thus bridging a major gap in the production cycle (ore to finished product) of high quality Titanium components.

Investment casting technology for high pressure turbine blades and vanes in gas turbine engine. Hot isostatic pressing technology for near net shaped integral turbine rotors. Technologies related to Composite Armor, Special Steels for the Navy, Cast Airfoils for Gas Turbines, Titanium Alloys, Rare Earth Metalbased High Energy Magnets, Armour for Fighting Vehicles, Preparation of highly luminescent. multi-color emitting doped semiconducting nanocrystals, Large size plastic scintillator rods for nuclear installations. Technologies for indigenous development, testing & production of Fiber Optics Gyro, Ring Laser Gyro, Accelerometers, Inertial/ Automomous Navigation Systems, MEMS and MEMS based sensors, Directional warheads, Direct Action Trajectory and Altitude Control System, Long range Solid Rocket Motors, Smokeless Propellant, Composite Rocket Motor casings, Carbon Composite Re-entry Vehicles, Composite Radomes, Seals and jet vanes for under water Launch system, Pro-fragmented and Submunition Warheads.

Technologies for Command Guidance, Ram Rocket Propulsion, Multi Target Engagements, Twin engine Liquid Propulsion, Stabilisation of Launch Platform for Moving Ship. Multi-band Radar Seeker Test facility. Electro-megnetic Pulse facility.

Electrohydraulic servo valve Limited Production facility, Solid Propellant Processing facility. RINS-Ring Laser Gyro based INS-GPSGLONASS for long range missiles and Aircrafts, RINS-Ring Laser Gyro based INS-GPS-GLONASS for long range missiles and Aircrafts.

Millimeter Wave Ship-borne sonar HUMSA. Air Borne dunking sonar MIHIR. Torpedo Advanced Light TAL, Helicopter Fire Control System capable of launching of TAL (Advanced Light Torpedo) and depth charges. Submarine-sonar USHUS.

Torpedoes-Fire Control System.

Advanced Panoramic Sonar Hull mounted (APSOH) PACHENDRIYA - integrated submarine sonar and tactical fire control system. Underwater Telephone (UWT) TADPOLE sonobuoy high altitude deployable sonar. Auto-controlled Carbon Dioxide Control System.

Impressed Current Cathodic Protection System for Ship hull.

Indian Activated Aluminum Galvanic Sacrificial alloy system.

Poly-LIST Dockblock- a substitute for teak wood used for dry docking of ships.

Heavy duty non-skid paint.

250 Kw Silver Oxide-Zinc Battery.

IR Suppression System For Naval Platforms. Underwater Acoustic Communication System, Anti-torpedo decoy system, Fuel cell based power generation system, fibre optic biosensors for water borne pathogens. Helicopter fire Control System capable of launching of TAL (Advanced Light Torpedo) and depth charges. Microwave power modules, High Power Amplifiers, Transmitters for Electronic warfare, Cathodes, Vacuum microelectronic devices, High power microwave sources and diagnostics, Subsystems for distributed electronics, Subsystems for distributed electronics of Heavy weight torpedo, 6.5 KW pulsed X-band and 10k W pulsed Ku band Coupled-Cavities TWT for airborne radars. NBC Recce Vehicle.

NBC Protective Clothing/Permeable Suites, NBC water purification system.

Camouflage Pattern Generation Software, Synthetic Camouflage Net, Mobile medical post for Navy, Blast material Protection Suits, Synthetic Life Jacket, Anti Riot Polycarbonate Shield.

anti Riot Helmet, NBC Canister, Water Poison Naval Systems Micro Electronics & Devices NBC Technology Products & Systems Developed/ Technologies Developed and Cluster/Area Accepted/ Inducted Infrastructures Facilities established Seeker.

MINGS (miniaturized Inertial Navigaton & Guidance System) - MEMS (micro electro Mechanical system) based Hybrid Navigation System.

MEMS packaging.

Composite rocket motor casings. Sonar Technologies, Homing Technology. Pumpjet Propulsion.

Signal Processing for Target Classification. The floating laboratory - INS Sagardhwani, Underwater Acoustics Research Facility.

Hydrodynamic Test Facilities.

High Speed Towing Tank (HSTT).

Cavitation Tunnel.

Wind Tunnel. Wind Tunnel.


Shock, Noise and Vibration Test Facilities.

Under-Water ranges.

Torpedo Engineering Centre Electrical Propulsion Test Centre Materials and Acoustic Simulated Test (MATS) facility.

'Seakeeping and manocuring Basin.

Cluster computing facility to provide system level simulation of sonar systems-DARPAN.

Prototype Manu-facturing Facility. Underwater paint system for application under immersed condition, CO2 curtailment system for submarines High detection and performance computing center (CHITRA).

Secure and trusted computing and communication solutions for high assurance applications. NBC Protection, Radiation Instrumentation, NBC Defence Technologies. detection Kit, Portable Decontamination Apparatus, NBC Filters/ Ventition Systems, CW Type A/B Decontamination kit/Solution, Diagnostics kits for detection of Dengue, Chikungunya, Plague, Typhoid, Japanese Encephalitis, Malaria, Leptospirosis and swine flu, ELISA kit for simultaneous identification of food pathogens, NBC Protected Integrated Field Shelter. Technology Products & Systems Developed Cluster/Area Accepted/ Inducted

Table ends

The most significant contribution of DRDO is the creation of an echo system conducive to development of cutting edge technologies by developing partnerships with academic/research institutions and with industries; creating exhaustive infrastructure, both within the organisation and the partner entities, creating centres of excellence and establishing high quality manpower resource.

DRDO today possesses a wide spectrum of Core Competencies which include Systems Design & Integration of Complex Sensors, Weapon Systems & Platforms; Complex High-end Software Packages; Functional Materials; Test and Evaluation; Technology Transfer and Absorption etc. In addition, Expertise and Infrastructure have been built up for basic/applied research in relevant areas, Quality Assurance & Safety, Project & Technology Management. The Infrastructural facilities created by DRDO are national assets and include Integrated Instrumented flight Test Range, Structural Dynamics & Vibration Test facility for aircrafts, EW Test ranges, Propulsion and Ballistics Test facilities, EMI/EMC Test Rigs, EMP/Lightning, Antennae Test Range, Instrumentation Ship, Acoustic Research Ship, Underwater Weapon Test Ranges, Test Tracks for land systems etc.

The other tangible benefits are the capability in a wide range of militarily critical and advanced technologies, efforts in ensuring continuity of supply of components, spares in face of changing international scenario, developing a self reliant Defence R&D base and spin-offs into civil industry.

The major partners in our nation building endeavors include the three arms of the Services as the prime users , Defence PSUs, Private Industries, International Collaborators and Academic/Researchers. Inter-Governmental Agreements/MOUs on Defence Cooperation exist with about 35 countries. Training in specialised defence technology-related areas is offered to many developing countries for their scientific/ engineering personnel at the Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (A Deemed University), Pune. The DRDO has been actively promotion participation of Indian Industries in defence production and this has resulted in a significant growth of industries both in PSUs and private sector.

DRDO has strong interface with the user Services through the Integrated Defence Staff and Service HQrs. Studies of S&T road maps of DRDO and the three Services are carried out to identify the products and critical technologies that are required to be established within the country. The technologies are categorised into "Buy. "Make" and "Buy & Make" categories and strategies evolved to establish them in the country by one of the following routes, namely, 'In house development in DRDO', 'Acquisition of Matured Technologies through offset obligations'. DRDO has Foreign Collaborations, MOU/ Agreements with 33 countries in area of defence technologies. The major foreign partners are - Russia, USA, France, Israel, Germany, UK, Singapore, Kazhakastan and Kyrgystan. DRDO also has Joint Working Groups for collaboration with major foreign partners. Three such groups are Indo-US Joint Technology Group, Indo- Russian R&D Sub Group and Indo-Israel Managing Committee.

The Defence R&D expenditure of Rs 8,476.98 crore during the FY 2009-10 was just 5.98% of nation's total Defence Services expenditure of Rs. 1,41,812.11 crore. Nearly three-fourth of the total expenditure was on activities directly related to R&D and creation of infrastructure facilities for such activities. The Defence R&D Budget for the current (2011-12) FY is Rs 10,250.00 crore being 6.20% of the total Defence Services budget of Rs 1,64,455 crore. The strategic systems have been on priority, taking significant share of the Defence R&D budget.

The DRDO, being a knowledge based organisation, has been generating and protecting the intellectual property rights as part of its culture. DRDO has taken more than 491 Indian and 46 foreign patents/designs/copyrights till date, while another 652 Indian and 104 foreign patents are under prosecution. A good number of national and international papers with impact factor are being published by our scientists. DRDO provides support to Academia to carry out research on topics related to military science under Grants-in-Aid Scheme. There are more that 350 ongoing projects running at academia involving more than 200 institutions including IITs, IISc, Universities, Colleges, R&D centres, Professional Societies etc. More than 500 students are pursuing their PhD degrees under these projects. The annual budget of Grants-in-Aid scheme is about Rs. 100 crores.

The number of PhDs in DRDO under the DRDS category alone today is around 818. It is a true 'knowledge bank' for the nation and owner of a vast intellectual property. DRDO offers to its employees adequate professional ambiance in terms of flexibility of operation, autonomy, financial and managerial responsibilities. Advanced training, career and self-development needs of the scientists are also given due attention. The DRDO employees routinely perform duties that are unique in nature. Several projects in DRDO are mission mode and field oriented. In addition field trials are carried out for several months at a stretch under harsh environments like deserts and high altitude cold areas. Further, the scientists are also expected to carry out extensive airborne and ship borne trials as part of their project responsibilities.

The DRDO has attracted young students to take defence S&T as career option. Competent manpower is inducted into DRDO through several schemes such as All India DRDO Scientists Entry (SET), Annual Campus Talent Search, Selection as Scientist from candidates with fresh PhD under the ROSSA scheme, Online selection for NRIs and selection of scientists under Lateral Entry Scheme.

"Balasya mulam vigyanam" i.e. " The source of strength is Science" is the tag line of DRDO. It is Science that drives the nation in war and peace. DRDO has firm determination to make the nation strong and self reliant in terms of Science and Technology especially in the field of military technologies.

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