Defence: Indian government data

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Joint commands, existing as in 2015, and proposed; Graphic courtesy: The Times of India, August 20, 2015

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INDIA 2012


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Defence: Indian government data

INDIA enjoys a strategic location with reference to continental Asia and the Indian Ocean Region. The Indian peninsular landmass covers an area of 3.3 million square km and its population of over 1 billion people encompasses a vast range of ethnic, religious, cultural and linguistic diversities.

The over 15,000 km long land borders which India shares with seven neighbours (Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China, Bhutan and Nepal) range over terrain that is as diverse as her people. The Northern borders are marked by Himalayan peaks at upto 28,000 feet; the Western border stretches through deserts, fertile plains and thickly forested mountains; the North Eastern frontier comprises high ranges and dense tropical forests. India is flanked to its East, West and South by the Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are located 1300 km away from the nearest point on our East Coast and are strategically important in relation to the entrance to the Malacca Strait. The Lakshadweep and Minicoy Islands lie about 450 km from the nearest land point on the West Coast in the Arabian Sea, on the eastward sea lane of communication from the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea.

India’s geographical area, strategic location, trade links and its EEZ connect its security environment directly with its extensive neighbourhood, particularly neighbouring countries and the regions of Central Asia, South-East Asia, the Gulf and the Indian Ocean. In an increasingly globalised environment, these factors involve concomitant security concerns, responsibilities and challenges. While geo-strategic imperatives play a defining role in our security paradigm, economic and social imperatives also shape our security concerns and objectives.

India has strengthened its participation in multilateral institutions and deepened its strategic partnerships with various countries.

The establishment of the ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting Plus forum of ten ASEAN and eight non-ASEAN countries, including India, is seen as an effort to establish an open and inclusive security architecture for the region. India’s policy is to encourage and participate in cooperative approaches which would enable all countries in the region to counter traditional and non traditional security challenges and to ensure that the critical sea lanes in the region are kept open, secure and free for navigation and trade.

The salience of Africa in international security is increasing. A number of unresolved inter and intra national conflicts in the continent have global resonance. India has traditional historic ties with a number of African countries, which acquire an added strategic dimension in view of the emerging security challenges. The threat of piracy emerging from Somalian waters continues to endanger the safety of the sea lanes and is a matter of concern for the international community. The linkages between terrorists based in Somalia and trans-national organized crime is also a cause of major concern globally. The Indian Navy has been actively involved in combating maritime piracy in the region on its own and in coordination with the navies of other countries. India has also been actively involved in peacekeeping operations in Africa under the UN mandate and seeks to consolidate its relations with many countries in the region with which it has historical linkages.

The increased incidence of Piracy in the IOR is an issue of serious concern. The presence of Somali pirates in the waters around our western island territories has been an unwelcome development which requires heightened vigil. The Indian Navy, which has been given the overall responsibility for maritime security, is working in coordination with the Coast Guard and other Central and State agencies to deal with challenges of threats from the sea. The Indian Navy and Coast Guard have enhanced coastal surveillance and patrolling and joint exercises are also being regularly conducted with other agencies to improve operational coordination. India is also engaged in enhancing cooperative interactions and exchanges with various other countries in the IOR to tackle common security challenges. The Indian Navy is working in coordination with the navies and coalition forces of various countries in the Gulf of Aden. India is in favour of strengthening multilateral cooperation under a UN framework to meet the complex challenges of maritime security.


The principal task of the Ministry is to frame policy directions on defence and security related matters and communicate them for implementation to the Services Headquarters, Inter-Service Organisations, Production Establishments and Research & Development Organisations. It is required to ensure effective implementation of the Government’s policy directions and the execution of approved programmes within the allocated resources.

The principal functions of the Departments are as follows :

(i) The Department of Defence deals with the Integrated Defence Staff (IDS) and three Services and various Inter-Service Organisations. It is also responsible for the Defence Budget, establishment matters, defence policy, matters relating to Parliament, defence co-operation with foreign countries and co-ordination of all defence related activities.

(ii) The Department of Defence Production is headed by a Secretary and deals with matters pertaining to defence production, indigenisation of imported stores, equipment and spares, planning and control of departmental production units of the Ordnance Factory Board and Defence Public Sector Undertakings (DPSUs).

(iii) The Department of Defence Research and Development is headed by a Secretary, who is the Scientific Adviser to the Raksha Mantri. Its function is to advise the Government on scientific aspects of military equipment and logistics and the formulation of research, design and development plans for equipment required by the Services.

(iv) The Department of Ex-Servicemen Welfare is headed by a Secretary and deals with all resettlement, welfare and pensionary matters of Ex- Servicemen. HQ IDS came into existence about ten years ago in response to the pressing need for Tri Service Jointness and the Group of Ministers (GoM) report on Kargil on this issue and need for seamless integration in the areas of intelligence, operation or logistics. Acting as a single point organisation for inculcating Jointness and Synergy between the Armed Forces, IDS (under the aegis of Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee) also renders military advice to the Government.

The three Services Headquarters, viz., the Army Headquarters, the Naval Headquarters and the Air Headquarters function under the Chief Of the Army Staff (COAS), the Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS) and the Chief Of the Air Staff (CAS) respectively. They are assisted by their Principal Staff Officers (PSOs). The Inter- Service Organisations, under the Department of Defence are responsible for carrying out tasks related to common needs of the three Services such as medical care, public relations and personnel management of civilian staff in the Defence Headquarters.


The ever changing global geo-political dynamics presents the Nation with multiple security challenges. The Indian Army (IA) is committed to the defence of the country from external and internal threats across the entire spectrum of warfare. Additionally, aid to Civil Authorities is provided in times of disaster/natural calamities.

The Army continues to maintain strict vigil while constantly reviewing its operational preparedness/postures to meet the perceived security challenges.

Armoured Corps is undergoing rapid modernisation as per the requirements of the modern battlefield. To attain a cutting edge, focus is on removing night blindness of tanks and equipping them with modern fire control systems as well as the latest gunnery simulators. Efforts are also on to provide an active defence suit, which candetect and neutralize the incoming threats.

Contracts for procurement of Environmental Control System for BMP-2/2K and Milan 2T missiles for Recce and Support Battalions of the Mechanised Infantry have been concluded. To provide a cutting edge to the Mechanised Infantry, the procurement of Third Generation Anti-tank Guided Missiles and the Integration of Thermal Imager Sight with all the weapon systems of BMP-2/2K is in process. The focus for procurement of Artillery equipment has primarily been on surveillance and fire power. To enhance the surveillance capability, the procurement of Battlefield Surveillance System, Mobile Telescopic Mast for Lorros and Heron UAV is at an advanced stage. Procurement of various other weapons and equipment like Pinaka Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher System, 155 SP Gun (Wheeled) and 155 mm Ultra Light Howitzer, 155mm Towed Gun, Smerch Multi Launcher Rocket System and Vehicle Platform for GRAD BM 21 MBRL is also in progress.

The Corps of Army Air Defence is taking major strides in upgrading its gun and missile systems. The proceurement of the Akash Missile System is at an advanced stage of fructification. To enhance surveilance capabilities, 3D Tactical Control and Low Level Light Weight Radars are at an advanced stage of procurement. Upgradation of Self Propelled Air Defence Gun Missile System, Schilka Gun System and L 70 Gun is also in process.

Full thrust is being laid on modernising and equipping the Infantry soldier with various weapons/equipment like submachine Guns and Assault Rifles for Special Forces; Bullet Proof Jackets and Ballistic Helmets for counter insurgency operations; Hand Grenades and Ballistic Shields for Ghatak Platoons etc. Procurement action for replacement of existing reconnaissance and surveillance helicopters with modern helicopters with better capabilities is in progress. Army Aviation is also in the process of weaponising the indigenously manufactured Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH). In order to enhance its operational efficiency, the Army Aviation is also in the process of procuring Cheetal Helicopters.


The Indian Navy (IN) by virtue of its multidimensional capability, strategic positioning and robust presence in the areas of interest has been a catalyst for peace, tranquility and stability in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR). The Indian Navy has engaged other maritime nations to support national initiatives of cooperation and engagement. Indian Naval fleets have sailed and exercised successfully in the South China Sea and the African and Mediterranean waters. These opportunities have strengthened bilateral relationships, enhanced inter-operability and helped in sharing best practices from other navies. The Indian Navy is enhancing its capabilities, cooperation and inter-operability with regional and extra-regional navies.

Creation of capability and modernisation of the force is being pursued with vigour, based upon the threat perceptions, prevailing external strategic security environment and emerging technologies. The Indian Navy remains deeply committed to the process of indigenisation by inducting capabilities both from the public and private sector. A total of 36 ships and submarines are presently on order in Indian and overseas yards.

In continuation with the policy of enhancing cooperation with foreign navies, a series of exercises were conducted. This included MALABAR-10, SIMBEX-10, IND-INDO, CORPAT, IBSAMAR II, DIMDEX 2010, KONKAN-10, Ex HABUNAG- 1 and Passage Exercise.

The first indigenously designed and built stealth frigate, IN Ship Shivalik was commissioned by Raksha Mantri (Defence Minister) at Mumbai on April 29, 2010. IN Ships Cankarso, Kondul and Kalpeni were also commissioned in 2010.


The Indian Coast Guard came into being as an independent service on August 19, 1978 under the Coast Guard Act, 1978. Since its inception, the Coast Guard has acquired a wide range of capabilities both surface and airborne to undertake the assigned tasks during peace time and to supplement the efforts of Indian Navy during war.

The command and control of the Coast Guard lies with the Director General of Indian Coast Guard, at New Delhi. The Organisation has four Regional headquarters located at Mumbai, Chennai, Gandhinagar and Port Blair. These Regional Headquarters exercise command and control in the waters adjoining the entire coastline of India through twelve Coast Guard District Headquarters located along the coastal states of India. In addition, there are co-located and independent stations at strategic locations. Two Air Stations, five Air Enclaves and one independent squadron have been set for deployment of aircraft for Search & Rescue and maritime surveillance.

The duties and functions of Coast Guard are as follows:-

(a) Safety and protection of artificial islands and offshore terminals, installations and devices in maritime zones.

(b) Protection and assistance to fishermen at sea while in distress.

(c) Preservation and protection of marine environment.

(d) Prevention and control of marine pollution.

(e) Assistance to customs and other authorities in anti-smuggling operations.

(f) Enforcement of enactments being in force in the maritime zones.

(g) Other matters, including measures for the safety of life and property at sea and collection of scientific data.

In addition to the mandate as laid down under section 14 of Coast Guard Act 1978, the Indian Coast Guard has also been entrusted with the following additional roles  :-

(i) Offshore Security coordination committee.

(ii) National Maritime Search and Rescue Coordinating authority.

(iii) Lead intelligence agency for Coastal and Sea Border.

(iv) Coastal Security in territorial waters.


Air power, due to its inherent nature, possesses immense potential for coercive strategy and IAF, today, is well established on the path of becoming a lethal aerospace force, ready to face the dynamic technological global challenges through modernization and able leadership. The modernisation plan includes both upgradation of existing aircraft, equipment and infrastructure as well as induction of indigenous and imported new aircraft and equipment.

The induction of the state-of-the-art C-130-J Hercules special mission aircraft and operationalisation of the Network Centric capabilities have added qualitatively to the mission accomplishment capability of the IAF.

The Indian Air Force has strengthened its Air Defence capabilities by contracting a number of LLWR. Some of these radars are already inducted and operational, thereby providing gap free radar coverage of the nation’s AD network.


The following are the commissioned ranks in the three Servicesbb ; each rank is shown opposite its equivalent in the other Service:



The Armed Forces epitomize the ideals of service, sacrifice, patriotism and composite culture of the country. Recruitment to the Armed Forces is voluntary and open to all citizens of India irrespective of caste, class, religion and community, provided the laid down physical, medical and educational criteria are met.

Recruitment of Commissioned Officers in the Armed Forces through UPSC : Commissioned Officers in the Armed Forces are recruited mainly through the UPSC which conducts the following two All India Competitive Examinations :

(a) National Defence Academy (NDA) and Naval Academy (NA) : The UPSC holds entrance examination twice a year for entry into the NDA and Naval Academy. Candidates on Completion of 10+2 examination or while in the 12th standard are eligible to compete.

(b) Combined Defence Service Examination *CDSE) : CDSE is conducted by the UPSC twice a year. University graduates obb Rs. those in final year of graduation are eligible to appear in the examination. Successful candidates join the Indian Military Academy/ Air Force Academy and Naval Academy for Permanent Commission and Officers Training Academy (OTA) for Short Service Commission.


Recruitment of Commissioned Officers in the Army Through Non-UPSC Entries : Apart from the UPSC entries, the commissioned officers are also recruited in the Army through the following Non-UPSC entries :

(a) University Entry Scheme (UES) : Final/ Pre-Final year engineering degree course students in the notified engineering disciplines are eligible to apply for Permanent Commission in the Technical Arms of the Army as Commissioned Officers under the UES. Eligible candidates are selected through a campus interview by the Screening Teams deputed by the Army Headquarters. These candidates are required to appear before SSB and Medical Board.

(b) Technical Graduates Course (TGC) : Engineering graduates from notified disciplines of engineering/post graduates with minimum second division aggregate marks in notified disciplines for Army Education Corps and MSc in Agriculture/Dairy for Military Farms are eligible to apply for Permanent Commission through this entry. After the SSB and the Medical Board, the selected candidates are required to undergo one year pre-commission training at the IMA, Dehradun, before being commissioned.

(c) Short Service Commission (Technical) Entry : The Short Service Commission (Technical) Entry scheme provides avenues to eligible technical graduates/ post graduates for recruitment in Technical Arms. After SSB and Medical Board, the selected candidates are required to undergo approximately 49 weeks precommission training at OTA, Chennai.

(d) 10+2 Technical Entry Scheme (TES) : Candidates who have qualified 10+2 CBSE/ICSE/State Board Examination with minimum aggregate of 70% marks in Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics are eligible to apply for commission under the 10+2 (TES).

(e) Short Service Commission (Women) : Women are offered Short Service Commission in three streams, viz. Non-Technical Graduate, Technical, Post Graduate/Specialist for a period of ten years, extendable by additional four years purely on voluntary basis. The duration of training is 49 weeks at Officers Training Academy, Chennai. For Short Service Commission (Women) (Technical) Entry, candidates who have passed or are appearing in final year/ semester of B.E./B.Tech in notified streams are eligible to apply. Candidates who qualify for the written examination conducted by the UPSC come up for SSB interview.

(f) NCC (Special Entry Scheme) : Students possessing NCC ‘C’ Certificate with minimum ‘B’ grade and studying in final year of the three year Degree course who have obtained more than 50% aggregate marks in the first two years of the degree course are eligible to apply for Short Service Commission through this entry. If selected in SSB interview, such candidates require to score overall aggregate 50% marks in the three year Bachelor Degree course failing which the candidate will be rejected. Such cadets are exempted from written examination conducted by UPSC and are directly put through the SSB interview followed by Medical Board.

(g) Judge Advocate General Entry : Law graduates with minimum 55% aggregate marks in LLB, who are within 21 to 27 years of age can apply for judge Advocate General Branch. Eligible candidates are called for direct SSB interview and thereafter for medical test. It is a Short Service Commission Entry wherein suitable candidates can opt for Permanent Commission. Recruitment of Personnel Below Officers Rank (PBORs) : In the Army, there are eleven Zonal Recruiting Offices, two Gorkha Recruiting Depots, one Independent Recruiting Office and 59 Army Recruiting Offices in addition to 47 Regimental Centres which carry out recruitment through rallies in their respective areas of jurisdiction.

Recruitment of Personnel Below Officers Rank (PBORs)

is carried out through the Open rally system. The recruitment of PBORs commences with the preliminary screening of aspiring candidates at rally site followed by document checking, physical fitness tests, physical measurements, and medical examination. This is followed by a written examination for the candidates who are found eligible in all respects. Finally, selected candidates are dispatched to respective Training Centres for training.


Recruitment of Officers in Indian Navy : The recruitment system of the Navy is streamlined, transparent, expeditious and candidate friendly. Apart from the UPSC entries, the commissioned officers are also recruited in the Navy through Non-UPSC entries.

Non-UPSC Entry :

The non-UPSC entries are for both Permanent Commission (PC) and Short Service Commission (SSC) cadres. For such entries, the applications are invited and short-listed at Integrated Headquarters of the Ministry of Defence (Navy) [IHQ of MoD (Navy]. The short-listed candidates are then sent for SSB interviews for the following branches/cadres of the Navy :

(i) 10+2 (Cadet) Entry Scheme : This scheme provides an avenue for permanent commission in the Executive, Engineering and Electrical branches of the Indian Navy. Under the scheme, candidates with 10+2 (PCM) qualifications, after selection through the Services Selection Board, are sent to the Indian Naval Academy for the B Tech Course.

(ii) Executive : Short Service Commission for Air Traffic Control/Law/ Logistic/Naval Armament Inspectorate (NAI)/Hydro cadres/Pilot/ Observer and also Permanent Commission for Logistic/Law/NAI cadres.

(iii) Engineering (Including Naval Architects) : Short Service Commission through University Entry Scheme (UES), Special Naval Architects Entry Scheme (SNAES) and SSC (E) Schemes. Permanent Commission is through 10+2 (Cadet) Scheme.

(iv) Electrical Engineering : SSC entry is through UES and SSC(L) Schemes. Permanent Commission is through 10+2 (Cadet) Scheme.

(v) Education Branch : Permanent Commission and Short Service Commission schemes exist for this branch.

(vi) University Entry Scheme (UES) : Under UES, final and pre final year Engineering students are eligible for induction into the technical Branches/Cadres of the Navy. Naval selection teams from the IHQ of MoD (Navy) and Command Headquarters visit AICTE approved engineering colleges, across the country, to short-list the candidates. The short-listed candidates, based on All India Merit, are called for interview at the Services Selection Board.

(vii) Recruitment through NCC : University graduates possessing NCC ‘C’ certificate, with minimum ‘B’ grading and 50% marks in the graduation degree examination (Physics and Maths) are inducted in the Navy as regular commissioned officers. These graduates are exempted from appearing in CDSE conducted by the UPSC and are selected through the SSB interview only.

(viii) Special Naval Architecture Entry Scheme : The Government has recently approved the induction of 45 Naval Architect officers into the Naval Architecture Cadre of the Engineering Branch of the Indian Navy, as Short Service Commission Officers. An empowered Naval team visits IIT Kharagpur, IIT Chennai, Cochin University of Science and Technology (CUSAT) and Andhra University, where B Tech (Naval Architecture) course is conducted to select candidates through campus interviews. The selected candidates undergo medical examination at the nearest Military hospital and, if found fit, are selected for training.

Recruitment of Sailors :

Recruitment into the Navy is carried out on ‘‘All India basis on state-wise merit of the eligible recruitable male population’’, as per the number of vacancies available.

Types of Entries of Sailors : The various entries, for recruitment of sailors, are as follows :-

(a) Artificer Apprentices (AAs) 10+2 (PCM).

(b) Direct Entry (Diploma Holders) [Diploma in Mechanical/Electrical/ Electronics/Production/Aeronautical/Metallurgy/Shipbuilding].

(c) Senior Secondary Recruits (SSR) 10+2 (Sc.).

(d) Matric Entry Recruits (MR), for recruitment of Cooks, Stewards and Musicians Matriculation.

(e) Non Matric Recruits (NMR), for recruitment of Topass Sailors (Safaiwala) Class VI.

(f) Direct Entry Petty Officer (Outstanding Sportsmen).


Induction of officers : Induction to National Defence Academy (NDA) and Combined Defence Service Examination (CDSE) are through UPSC. The non-UPSC entries for induction into the officer’s cadre are : SSC (Men & Women) Flying, NCC Entry (PC for men), ASC (PC for Men), GDOC (Non Tech) (PC for Men), Airmen

Entry (PC for Air Warriors), SSS (Technical) (Men & Women), and SSC (Non Tech) (Men & Women).

(a) Recruitment through Service Selection : Recruitment through Service Selection Boards/ Air Force Selection Boards is made for the Flying (Pilot), Aeronautical Engineering (Electronics), Aeronautical Engineering (Mechanical), Education, Administration, Logistics, Accounts and Meteorology branches of the Air Force.

(b) University Entry Scheme : Final/pre-Final year students in engineering disciplines are eligible for induction into the technical branches of Air Force as Permanent Commissioned Officers under the University Entry Scheme.

(c) Recruitment of Women Officers : Eligible women are recruited as Short Service Commissioned Officers in the Flying, Aeronautical Engineering (Electronics), Aeronautical Engineering (Mechanical), Education, Administration, Logistics, Accounts and Meteorology branches of the IAF.

(d) Recruitment through National Cadet Corps (NCC) : University graduates possessing NCC ‘C’ Certificate with minimum ‘B’ grading and 60% marks in graduation are inducted in the IAF as Regular Commissioned Officers by way of selection through the Service Selection Boards.

Recruitment of Personnel Below Officers Rank (PBORs) :

The selection of candidates for Personnel Below Officers Rank (PBORs) is carried out through a centralized selection system on All India basis in which Central Airmen Selection Board (CASB) assisted by 14 Airmen Selection Centres (ASCs) located at different parts of the country, carries out the recruitment.


The National Cadet Corps (NCC) was established under the NCC Act, 1948. It has completed 63 years of existence. The NCC strives to provide the youth of the country opportunities for all-round development with a sense of commitment, dedication, self-discipline and moral values, so they become useful citizens. The motto of NCC is ‘‘Unity and Discipline’’.

The NCC’s presence extends to 615 districts of the country covering 14,544 institutions. The sanctioned strength of NCC cadets is 13.4 lakhs. Every year, 40,000 Cadet Strength will be added for the next four years, thereby taking the sanctioned strength to 15 lakhs by the year 2015.


A large number of training institutions in the Defence Sector work in coordination with one another. The important ones are described in the following paragraphs.

Sainik Schools

The Sainik Schools were established as a joint venture of the Central and State Governments. These are under the overall governance of Sainik Schools Society. At present, there are 24 Sainik Schools located in various parts of the country. The Sainik School at Rewari (Haryana) is the latest one started in March 2009.

The objectives of Sainik Schools include bringing quality public school education within the reach of the common man, all round development of a child’s personality and to remove regional imbalance in the officer’s cadre of the Armed Forces. The Sainik Schools have shown an upward trend in the number of cadets joining the National Defence Academy in keeping with the primary aim of establishing of Sainik Schools to prepare boys academically, physically and mentally for entry into the National Defence Academy.

Rashtriya Military Schools

The five Rashtriya Military Schools affiliated to CBSE are functioning at Chail, Ajmer, Belgaum, Bangalore and Dholpur. The Military Schools admit boys in Class VI, based on the results of an all India Common Entrance Test. While 67% seats are reserved for the wards of JCOs/ORs called ‘entitled category, out of 33% non-entitled category seats, 20% are reserved for wards of service officers.

National Defence Academy

The National Defence Academy (NDA) is the country’s premier Armed Forces Training Institution (AFTI). The three year course at the NDA is covered in six semesters and cadets are awarded with BA/BSc. degree. Thereafter, on conclusion of this training, the cadets proceed to their respective Service Academies for further training before being commissioned as officers in the Armed Forces.

Rashtriya Indian Military College

The Rashtriya Indian Military College (RIMC) was founded on March 13, 1922, with the objective of providing the necessary preliminary training for boys of Indian birth or domicile, wishing to become officers in the Armed Forces of India. The institution now serves as a feeder institute to the National Defence Academy. Selection for RIMC is through a written examination cum viva voce conducted through the State Governments. Seats for respective States are reserved based on population.

Indian Military Academy, Dehradun

The Indian Military Academy is a premier training establishment imparting Precommissioned training to the Gentlemen Cadets (GC). The training is aimed to make the Gentlemen Cadet an effective Platoon Commander once he passes out. Keeping up pace with revolution in Military affairs due to technical advancement and the advent of information technology, The IMA has kept up pace with recent development and has been upgrading its trainning frastructure. Installation of state-of-the-art Electronic Loc of Miss and Hit Target System (LOMAH) and modernization of Reflex Shooting Range to hone up firing skills has been completed during the training year. Emphasis has been given to training in New Generation Equipment (NGE) to include surveillance equipment and weapons. To factor in-e-Learning in the training curriculum, e-classrooms with interactive boards have been established in the Academy.

Interaction with foreign military academies through cadets exchange programme has been the highlight of the training year wherein selected Gentlemen Cadets visited France, Australia, UK and Singapore military academies. Visit of this nature, while giving wide exposure to the General Cadets, also helps in comparing military training standards with other contemporary institutes and thereby carry out introspection with a view to review training syllabi and positive changes/upgradation of our training infrastructure.

The IMA also provides exposure to General Cadets in adventure sport training. The general Cadets made the army proud by scaling Mount Jogin-I in June-2010. The Academy Equestrian Team participated in Delhi Horse Show-2011 and National Endurance Championship-2011 and excelled in most of the events.

Officers Training Academy, Chennai

Established in 1963, the officers Training Schools (OTS) was redesignated as Officers Training Academy (OTA) from January 1, 1988 on completion of 25 years of its existence. Its main task, before 1965, was to train Gentlemen Cadets for grant of Emergency Commission. From 1965 onwards, the Academy trains cadets for Short Service Commission. With the entry of women officers in the Army since September 21, 1992, around 100 lady officers now get commissioned from OTA every year in Army Service Corps, Army Education Corps, Judge Advocate General’s Department, Corps of Engineers, Signals and Electrical and Mechanical Engineers. In Summer Term 2010, for the first time in the history of OTA, the Sword of Honour was awarded to a Lady Cadet. Proud AUO Divya A received the prestigious award from the Chief of Army Staff.

Officers Training Academy, Gaya

The Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS), on December 3, 2009 has approved setting up of second Officers Training Academy (OTA), Gaya. The Academy has been commissioned on July 18, 2011. Initially, the training has commenced with 135 Cadets and progressively will have a built up strength of 9750 Gentlemen Cadets.

College of Military Engineering, Pune

The College of Military Engineering at Pune is a premier technical institution conducting training for personnel of the Corps of Engineers, other Arms and Services, Navy, Air Force, Para Military Forces, Police and Civilians. Besides, personnel from friendly foreign countries are also trained. CME is affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) for the award of B.Tech.

National Defence College

The National Defence College has established a name for itself as a centre of excellence on matters pertaining to National security and Strategic Studies. Selected Armed forces officers of the rank of Brigadier/ equivalent and Civil Services officers of equivalent status of Director and above are nominated for training at the college. The officers undergo an eleven month programme with focus on National Security, covering all dimensions of domestic, regional and international issue to equip future policy makers with background necessary to get a broad understanding of the multifarious economic, political, military, scientific and organizational aspects that are essential for planning of National Strategy.

College of Defence Management

The College of Defence Management (CDM) is an Armed Forces Training Institution (AFTI). This is in existence for over three decades now. It is entrusted with the responsibility of instilling contemporary management thoughts, concepts and practices in the senior leadership of the Armed Forces. Osmania University recognizes the core course of CDM, namely the Higher Defence Management Course for the award of the Master of Management Studies (MMS) degree.

Defence Services Staff College (DSSC)

The DSSC is one of the oldest military institutions in India. The DSSC imparts training to middle level officers of the three Services besides a few civilian officers and officers from friendly foreign countries. The college conducts a 45 week training programme from June to April every year. After successful completion of course, they are awarded with M.Sc. degree from Madras University.


Items uploaded from the popular press.

Aircraft lost: 2011-15

The Times of India

Aircrafts lost in crashes: 2011-15

Feb 28 2015

Since 2011, India's lost 28 planes, over `1,000cr

The armed forces have lost 28 aircraft and 14 helicopters in crashes, which killed 42 people, since 2011. Of the 28 aircraft crashes, 14 were aging MiGs that should have been retired long ago. “The loss to government in respect of 26 accidents assessed so far is estimated at Rs 1,127.37 crore,“ defence minister Manohar Parrikar said in a written reply tabled in Lok Sabha on Friday .

As reported by TOI earlier, the reasons for frequent crashes are attributed to “human errors“ and “technical defects“. In other words, “inadequate“ training to pilots, ageing machines and shoddy maintenance practices.

Parrikar said the defence acquisitions council (DAC) last August had decided that to balance the important issues of urgency and strategic interests, the requirement of new helicopters for Army and IAF would be met by procuring an immediate requirement, with the rest being manufactured domestically .

But the armed forces are still nowhere near getting new helicopters to replace the ageing Cheetah and Chetak fleets, due to the failure of suc cessive governments to take decisions in time, defence PSU Hindustan Aeronautics' tardy performance and recurring scandals in arms deals.

The long-delayed project to acquire 197 light helicopters from abroad has been scrapped thrice over the last decade. HAL, too, is still nowhere near delivering the 187 helicopters it was to make “within 60 months“ since February 2009.

Defence budget


The size of the defence and allied services and the defence budget, 2016; Graphic courtesy: The Times of India, May 21, 2016

See graphic The size of the defence and allied services and the defence budget, 2016


Defence budget: 2016-17; Graphic courtesy: The Times of India, March 7, 2016

See graphic, Defence budget, 2016-17

See also

Defence Economy: India

Defence imports, arms imports: India, Pakistan

Defence procurement: India

Defence procurement: South Asia

Defence production, India: 1

Defence production, India: 2 (ministry data)

Defence: Indian government data

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