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The origin of the chapchar kut
1) The Chapchar Kut Festival
2) Chapchar Kut: Rhyming with nature
MillenniumPost 2 March 2014,
3) S Singlianmang Guite
5) Kut, Our Cultural Heritage In Despair
By Yochanan Phaltual
MenashehaYom November 5, 2013
The main Mizo festivals
In Mizoram, there are three main festivals in a year. Festivals are called Kut in Mizo language. The three Kuts are Chapchar Kut, Mim Kut and Pawl Kut. All the three festivals are connected with agricultural activities. The festivals are celebrated with feasts and dances
Chapchar Kut: When?
At the end of February, when winter starts receding, the Mizos prepare the land for fresh planting. There are few days of relaxation before the serious business of sowing starts and that is when the Chapchar Kut festival is celebrated with gaiety and fervour across the state. The Chapchar Kut is one of the oldest festivals of Mizoram and has a great cultural significance. In 2014 the festival was celebrated on 7 March.
Chapchar Kut was celebrated after completion of the cutting of jhums. It was a thanksgiving festival. The villagers faced many dangers and difficulties in cutting down dense forests with their simple Daos and axes. They would organise a big feast in the month of March to celebrate the success in jhum cutting. The festival continued for seven days and even beyond if the villagers would afford it. A few days before the day is fixed for the festivities, hunting parties from the village would go out in the forests and rivers for hunting wild animals, trapping birds and catching fish. On this occasion Zu would be brewed in a large quantity.
The Chapchar Kut Festival is an annual harvest festival of Mizoram which observes the advent of spring. It is the time when bamboos and trees that have been cut down to make place for 'jhum' (seasonal farming) are awaited to dry to be burnt. It is one of the oldest festivals of Mizoram and lasts for seven days.
The people of Mizoram practice jhum cultivation which is the main basis of farming and also the source of income in the region. Trees are cut down to make space for cultivation and are kept aside for several days to be dried and burned later. Chapchar Kut calls for the time of revelry when these chopped trees are kept for drying.
The celebration, categorized under the spring festival umbrella, is the most important festival and the only one regularly observed during the first week of March in Mizoram.
Chapchar Kut marks the preparation before the onset of the sowing season and is celebrated during the time when jungles are cleared, bamboos and trees are cut down, and the land is prepared for jhum cultivation.
Chapchar Kut literally means - a festival held during the period when the bamboos and trees that have been cut down are being awaited to dry to be burnt for jhumming. During this brief layoff period of jhumming, the Mizo ancestors could have all the time for themselves. They spend their leisure hunting games, fishing, etc.
Four kinds of Kut
There were four kinds of Kut which were all related to agriculture and whose origin is lost in oblivion as it is based on oral tradition. They are Mim Kut (Festival of Grain/Maize harvest), Pawl Kut (winter harvest), Chapchar/Chapphou Kut (Spring harvest) and Chavang Kut (Autumn harvest).
What is Kut?
Kut is a culture and cultures are meant to safeguard the unique customs and tradition of certain ethnic group. These traditional Kut were celebrated with varied traditional fervor. Dances such as Saguol-Kengkhai, Suhtah Laam, Cheraw (Mizo bamboo dance), Phit Laam, Laam-kuol, etc. with indigenous sports like pestle-throw (Suhtum-kho), mithun -jump (Siel-Kal/Siel kungkal), Kibot/buontol kho (wrestling, traditional WWE) and others were showcased. Traditional musical instruments were played in competition such as Goshem (bagpiper), Theile (flute), Pheiphit, Lhem-lhei, Dah (Gong) and Dahcha (cymbals). (From Yochanan Phaltual)
According to one view, the Chapchar Kut festival evolved sometime between 1450 -1600 A.D. when the Mizo forefathers inhabit Lentlang. In the olden days, the festival could last for days and in the run up to the grand finale, there are well laid down steps to be followed. Everyone in the village have a role to play; of course, the youths were most involved in every stage of the preparation and in the festival itself.
Mr R.L.Thanzawna adds: In the halcyon days of Mizo History, around 1450-1700 A.D. (no-one could tell the exact time), a Kawlni Chief ruled over the most famous and most populous village called Suaipui. Geographically this Suaipui village of the ancestors of the Mizo was located within the territory of Myanmar. The highest aspiration of every young man in those days, was to excel in a feat of strength, skill or bravery in the field of battle or in hunting or even in sports. Such exploits or achievements of young man enhanced the fame of the village and sway of the chief. Often, it was the chief or his son, who used to lead young men of the village to war or to hunting expeditions. It was such practice which prompted, in later years, Col. John Shakespeare to write ‘The Lushais are not to be driven but led’ One fine morning in spring, the Chief of Suaipui gathered his village braves to a hunting expedition into the deep animal-infested forests, taking their flint-lock muskets, spears and daos. Sufficient gun-powder manufactured with the help of the village maidens were carried. Incidentally, it may be of interest to know that forefathers of Mizos knew how to manufacture gun-powder locally, since time immemorial. The hunting expedition took several days, it may last till they finished the stock of rice they carried or till they bagged enough big games with their guns. The villagers anxiously waited with expectancy for their successful return which will be followed by feasting with meat and drinking of rice-bear and general rejoicing. The village maidens were even more anxious, because, they would then make ear-rings, hair-combs and such other ornaments out of the ivory, bones and teeth of the big games they would be bringing home. Housewives took their turns and brew rice-beer with the biggest beer-pots available and made sure that there would be no dearth of Zu to go round when the intrepid hunters return with their booty.
Unfortunately however, as our legend says, the chief and his desperadoes were not blessed by ‘Chawngleri’ (the Guardian Queen of the beasts) or they were cursed by Black Hollock by sprinkling its droppings on them. The hunters came back to the village with no booty, empty-handed. Imagine their discomfiture when they saw their village folks who waited for them with great expectancy. The worthy young chiefs’ initiative and inventive mind, however saved the situation which gave us the Chapchar Kut which we celebrate even today.
To cover up the shame and disappointment, the chief proposed an impromptu feast instantly- he showed up his fat pig and asked his hunting-mates to contribute a fowl each. A feast was thus made with meat aplenty and rice-beer zu was flowing. The spirit went high and the mood was changed from disappointment to joyful merrymaking young men and young women threw their hands around each other and danced in a circle; there were singing and clapping of hands all the while. The entire community enjoyed themselves even more than they would ever do even if the hunters had come back with rich booty. They have turned ‘defeat into victory’ as it were, and Chapchar Kut was born. Every year ever since, around that fateful time, the festival of a sort was repeated by Suaipui, and many other villages followed suit with their own innovations and time.
Along with the birth of Chapchar Kut was also born a particular dance which we now call Chai. It is also interesting to note that, the incident which was responsible for the origin of Chapchar Kut also carried along with it the tradition of contributing zu or rice-beer and food (including of course-meat) for the festival. The time also happened to be the most opportune time, when the chilly winter thaws into Spring, when the intense cold is over and the summer heat is not yet known. The trees begin to bear new leaves and wild beast and birds begin to welcome the bright warm morning of Spring. Added to this, the Mizo people have by this time completed their arduous task of clearing of the forests for their Jhum and left I them in the sun to dry till they would be burnt a couple of months later. Thus, for the hard-working Mizo villagers, this is the rare respite they can enjoy leisure in a year. It may not be out of place to say here, that in most of the North Eastern States a gay festival under different name is celebrated around this time. It is therefore meet and proper that the sister States of the North East India come together to share our respective Spring Festivals with the spirit of fraternal reciprocity.
How the festival evolved in the post — Christian era
Christianity came to Mizoram since 1894 through the Missionaries. Within a few years many Mizos embraced the new religion. The newly converts and the Missionaries felt most of the cultural tradi¬tions of the heathen Mizos, including the observance of Chapchar Kut and other Kuts, which were so profusely connected with animis¬tic practices and drinking of zu were unbecoming of Christian Living. The newly converted Christians were therefore forbidden to participate and indulge in them. The Presbyterian Church in Aizawl and the Baptist Church in Lunglei strongly discouraged their members from taking part in any of the Kuts and cultural activities as they thought such activities would hold them and pull them back to their old pagan ways. At the gestation period of Christianity among the sim¬ple tribesmen in Mizoram such an attitude of the Church was tolerated, and perhaps justified.
With the increase of educated men among the Mizos and with the increasing exposure to the outside world there was an increasing opinion that our cultural heritage could be refined and sieved to go along with Christianity without compromising with the doctrines in the Bible. In the fast changing Mizo Society, attitudes and values change as rapidly as does our environment. Enlightened Mizo society does no longer look askance at our cultural heritage as detrimental to our integrity to the faith but rather as an enrichment of Christian brotherhood worldwide. There is no reason now to be ambivalent about the celebration of our cultural festivals in a refined way as we do today.( From Mr R.L.Thanzawna)
A Jewish Mizo view
Yochanan Phaltual, who is Jewish and Mizo, adds: In the past the Bnei Menashe [Jewish Mizos]celebrated several Kut (festival) in tune with the changing seasons of the year. The advance of Christianity and western cultures discarded many of our customs and tradition. Change in the traditional culture does not mean getting rid or abolition of the same.
The modern day liberty and culture invasion brought about a sea change in the meaning and content of the festivals. With State government sponsorship and thanks to the initiation of political bigwigs, new elements were added to spice up the Kut flavor.
In fact, the cultural aspects and elements of celebrating Kut festival have been reduced to MISS KUT CONTEST. The Christian Church lamenting the Kut becoming a kind of reckless license to drink and free-for-all brawl wrestling mania night. Poor Christian society tries to rectify the wrong things by influencing the Kut Committee in a bid to spiritually diversify against the popular Miss Kut contest and Beauty pageant, manage to stage a gospel Kut with the theme “Kut for Christ” in many places. The result of change is clear and stark – Kut becoming a boring gospel musical show sans all the glam – frills and few crowd with the larger unholy and wild boozers.
Tradition Dies Hard
Although the Presbyterian Synod and the Baptist Assembly were as of principle, officially, opposed to revival of the old traditional cultural festivities and activities, enlightened church leaders were more liberal yet ambivalent. They saw no harm in singing the old songs, dancing the traditional cultural dances, if there were no drinking and pagan revelry and obeisance to anything connected to the old ani¬mism. In fact, the Baptist Church in the south, in its Assembly meeting in the thirties, passed a resolution saying that there is no harm to cultural activities and performances if it was merely done with the spirit of demonstration and not actual indulgence or adherence to the old animism. The borderline between Culture and Religion is extremely thin and hard to define. For the guardians of the nascent Churches it was necessary to walk carefully. Even today, the Churches find themselves stymied on the subject even as the majority of their members choose to walk freely on the green fields of culture.
The British Officers of the Administration were all through, at variance with the Missionaries on the question of culture - including drinking of rice-beer. That was not surprising at all. Around 1930 some nationalistic minded Mizo staff of the office of the superinten¬dent applied for a holiday to celebrate the Chapchar Kut. They did celebrate Chapchar Kut at Thakthing Veng and Chaltlang in that way for some years.
After 1952: enshrined in legislation
When the Mizo District Council was esta¬blished in Mizoram in 1952 a Bill was passed in the Council for the Observance of Chapchar Kut (3 days), Pawl Kut (2 days) and Mim Kut (1 day). For the next 20 years (1952—1972) the District Council officially declared holidays for the celebration of the Mizo Festivals. Although official holidays were declared, public celebra¬tion of the festivals on a large scale and in an organised manner happened only from 1960 onwards. A committee consisting of Pu Hrangaia (convener), Pu B. Poonte, Pu Sangliana, Pu Sainghinga, Pu R.Buchhawna, Pu R.Zuala, Pu Tawnluia, Pi Meli and Pi Hmingliani was formed to organise the celebration.
Setback in the late1960s
In 1961, 1962, 1963 and 1964 Chapchar Kut were celebrated in an organised manner and on a mass scale at the Assam Rifles Parade ground in Aizawl. There were Khuallam, Cheraw, Hockey, Inkawibah, Cycle Races and Costume Parades to entertain the public. Things went off very well, except in 1964 when a group of rowdies quietly smuggled in a few bottles of rum to ply the dancers with. This was done without the knowledge of the organisers and obviously without their approval. The news reached the Church authority through the grapevine. Criticism of the Chapchar Kut celebration 1964 was issued from the Church. The Church’s injunction further stated that church members should not allow their sons and daugh¬ters to join the Chapchar Kut next time, i.e. 1965. So it was forestalled.
In 1966 also celebration of Chapchar Kut was not held on a mass scale. 1967-72 no proper celebration of the Chapchar Kut could be held owing to the insurgency.
1972: a revival, but Church leaders do not give their blessings
In 1972 Chapchar Kut was again revived on a mass scale by the Directorate of Information & Public Relations and Tourism. In 1973 the Mizo Zirlai Pawl, with the help of the Information & Public Relations spearheaded the Chap¬char Kut Celebration at the AR Ground on a mass scale. Even at this stage, the Church Leaders were still not yet fully convinced but no opposition was voiced by them. However, Church Leaders failed to give their blessings on the Chapchar Kut functions which was enough to dampen the spirit. Mizoram was by 1972 raised to the status of an Union Territory. There was a popular rejoicing at the raised political status and the formation of popular Ministry in Mi¬zoram. On the other hand the public was fed-up with the tense insurgency atmosphere and they were yearning to ventilate their men¬tal constriction through songs, dances and other worthwhile entertain¬ments.
Under such conditions, the Government of Mizoram was wise enough to find out ways and means of organising such public enter¬tainments and diversions. Chapchar Kut comes only once a year, what more can we do create wholesome and peaceful atmosphere? Such entertainments will also go along way in bringing an end to the lingering insurgency and also bring about the spirit of Coopera¬tion and fraternity between all people — army, civil and the Government servants, and perhaps wean back the insurgents too + With such ideas in mind, the Information and Public Relations Department under the leadership of the Chief Secretary organised Beat Contests, Recitation Competitions, On-the-Spot Painting Competitions and Winter Festivals on a grand scale. The results were amazing; the response from the public was simply great. Added to this the Chapchar Kut was organised on a grand scale, and at this stage the opposition from the Church was not more than a caution.
In 1974 the Art & Culture Department came into being. This new department, with its appropriate paraphernalia took up the Chapchar Kut Celebrations as part of its important functions from 1981 onwards.
1980s onwards: a State Level Committee
From 1981 onwards a State Level Committee for Chapchar Kut was formed with senior officer as its Chairman. Year by year, the celebration saw a lot of improvements. Chapchar Kut celebrations of 1993, 1994 under the Chairmanship of Pu Lalfak Zuala were so well organised and popular that anyone who parti¬cipated in the festivals will not easily forget. They saw something to write home about. One looks forward to seeing Chapchar Kut becoming the greatest draw in attracting Tourists from all over the world to Mizoram in the near future.
We have seen how Chapchar Kut as a Cultural heritage and popular festival has been kept alive and preserved mostly in the State Capital. It would befall in my duty if mention is not made of the laudable efforts made elsewhere by enlightened and staunch supporters of our culture. Of all the persons, it was the Rev. J.F. Raper (Zomawia Pa), one of the missionaries, who made conscien¬tious efforts to preserve and revive the Mizo tradition of Zawlbuk, cultural dances through the Scouts movement started by him in Lung-lei in 1932, June 6th. He was ably supported by a number of lea¬ders like Pu Thala, Pu Lalmama, Pu Hangpawla, Pu J. Buana who later got a Padma Shree award, Pi Nuchhungi who also got a Pad-ma Shree award, Pu Chhuana, Pu Rokunga, Pu Sumleta, Pu Raltawna and many others. One Lady missionary, named Pi Zirtiri (Miss Chapman), who was in charge of women’s education in South Mizo¬ram - introduced cultural dances and games and Mizo Lullabies to be used in her schools all along. She blended the Mizo lullabies with the English Nursery rhymes in a manner easily understood and learnt by Mizo children. Like this, from all quarters there were efforts to preserve and kept alive our cultural heritage and today after we have attained a hundred years of Christianity it is time to look at matters of religion and culture in their true perspectives with mature minds.
Thanks to the efforts of worthy individuals, organisations, the government and thanks to the public enthusiasm, Chapchar Kut has become the most popular, most colourful cultural festival of Mizoram now. The day is declared a gazetted holiday and is celebrated all over Mizoram. .( From Mr R.L.Thanzawna)
Where is the festival celebrated?
In course of time Chapchar Kut was celebrated in all the villages in Mizoram and very soon assumed a very important cultural tradi¬tion in our society. Each village must have developed their own brand of celebration to suit their own time, idiom and ethos, over the years. The general standard of celebrations was of four to five days with specific emphasis or programmes for each day.
In the 21st century the festival is mainly patronised by the state capital.
How the festival is celebrated
Folk music and traditional dance performances are the major festivities of Chapchar Kut. And people from various tribal communities, from all ages and walks of life come together and participate in this festival. Dressed in traditional attire, different tribal communities compete with each other in dance and music.
Heroic deeds for the men
To attain a position of distinction, a Mizo had to go through a series of ceremonies and perform many feats of heroic deeds. These ceremonies are always accompanied by a feast and to this feast, friends from nearby villages are invited - hence, Khuallam is the dance for the visitors or guests. The 'Chheih lam' is another community dance performed by both men and women. The war dance 'Solakia', a prerogative of the male population of the community, is accompanied by rhythmic beating of the drums Exhibition and sale of indigenous Handloom and Handicraft products and other tourist attractions like flower show, food festival, musical competition and different traditional games are also organized during the Chapchar Kut festival.
The festivities involve folk music performances which have a major appeal in the Chapchar Kut Festival. Liquor indulgence once used to be the key mode of merriment but with passage of time it has been done away with and now the focus is only on music and dance. Dressed in colourful traditional apparel, various tribal communities compete with each other in dance and music. A bamboo dance is also performed where only women take part. The men sit on the ground and tap the bamboos in rhythm against each other. It is a beautiful sight to watch the people of Mizoram dancing, dressed in outfits vibrant in colour and hats made from beads and feathers.
The six days
Some of the rituals mentioned below now belong to the past, before the advent of the British Administrators and the Missionaries. The duration of the celebration, the timing and the style the festivals may have variations but on the whole they were fairly similar.
The first day/ Lusei Vawktalh
On the first day of the festival, pigs would be killed by the members of the chief's clan for the feast. Pork in big quantities would be eaten and lot of Zu would be consumed. This day was called Lushai Vawk Tlah Ni which literally means the day on which the Lushias kill pigs. They kill their pigs late in the day so that by the time the feast in ready most urchins were deep in sleep. Upas-Elders spent the day drinking beer. Young people prepared things for the festivals.
The second day/ Ralte Vawktalh
On the second day, members of the other clans in the village would kill their pigs early in the day for the village feast. Collecting their kith and kin to a pig-feast. Elders, including women spent the day drinking beer-Young boys and girls, busy in preparations enjoying themselves singing and dancing. At evenfall old women-carrying cooked food and boi¬led eggs-feeding passersby with food at entrance to the village-usually under the banyan trees/near memorial stones
The third day
On the third day, which was known as Kut day, Zu would be taken in the houses in which someone had died during the year. On this day before sunset in the evening people particularly mother and children dressed in their best would gather in the open space in the village at the Lungdawh, which is a stone platform put up as a memorial to the dead, bringing with them rice, boiled eggs and meat. One would try to force the food down the throat of one's friends. This was known as Chhawnghnawt. After sunset the young boys and girls would get together in the houses of well-to-do-villagers. They would spend the night in drinking, singing and dancing.
Mr R.L.Thanzawna adds: Young men and young women turned out at night dressed in their fineries - necklaces of amber, ear-rings of ivory and beautiful headgears, (for information - Mizos do not value nor possess gold ornaments) - Boys and girls for¬med circles in the village yard-threw their hands over each others swaying to the left and to the right rhyth¬mically to the beat and tune of the drummer and the singer in the middle who kept the time of his song with the clanking of mithun horns. While the young men and girls were dancing thus it was the duty of the small boys and girls to ply them with rice-beer to quench their thirst while they were dancing. They sing and danced in gay abandon far into the night and right up to the next morning. If they could set the festive mood the next morning they could join in the next proceedings, if not, not.
The fourth day/ Zupui Ni
The next day was known as Zupui Ni which was the day of drinking a particular type of liquor called Zupui which was brewed from well husked rice. In the evening before sunset, young men and girls dressed in their best would gather in the open space of the village for singing and dancing. They formed a circle in which the young men would have their arms across girls who would alternate between the boys. Within the circle would be the drummer or gong beater, who would chant while the young people would sing and move slowly keeping time with the song. This dance was known as Chai dance. During the dance, the children of the village would go on serving the dancing boys and girls Zu of the best variety in bamboo cups.
Mr R.L.Thanzawna adds: One can drink Zupui for the whole day and not get drunk, so they say. Zupui is normally drunk through syphon or pipe immersed into the beer-pot. On this day Zupui contributed by various families were passed around the whole day. Towards the evening cultural sing-song and dancing got underway again which may last till the small hours of the next morning once again, depending on the mood.
The fifth day/ Zu Thing Chawi Ni
The next day was called Zuthingni or Zu Thing Chawi Ni (the day of drinking a special type of Zu). On this day there would be a general dance in the village. Zu drinking would go on. It was custo-mary to try and finish all the Zu (beer) contributed or collected for the Chapchar Kut.The dance would continue day and night until the Zu supply would run short.
The sixth day/ ‘Eipuar Awm Ni’
The last day of the festival was known as Ziapur ni or ‘Eipuar Awm Ni’ (the day of rest) after eating and drinking. On this day people would relax after hectic days of festivals. They would not go out to the jungle which was believed would bring bad luck. Having fed themselves with meat and drinks to the brim -they called this, a day of rest. Going out on this day for work or for hunting - outside the village perimeter was ‘taboo’
THE LONGEST CHAPCHAR KUT
There is a story which tells that the Chawngtui Village-Chapchar Kut celebration went on and on so that the entire village forgot their jhumming works and by the time they realised, it was already a harvesting time. The entire village had to disperse to other neighbouring villages. At Ruallung Village - the Chai Dance of Chapchar Kut was so enjoyable and so long that it went on and on. Suddenly, a parrot flew over their heads - they shouted at the poor bird which was frightened to drop the ‘thing’ in her mouth - when they saw this ‘thing’ they realised that it was the ear of paddy. Well, it was harvesting time. They didn’t stop a day too soon.
Bamboo and the other main dances
On this day people of all ages, young and old, men and women dressed in their colorful costumes and distinctive head gears and jewelries, assemble and perform various folk dances, singing traditional songs accompanied by beating of drums, gongs and cymbals. They dance in joyous celebration of life, each team displaying the best of its region. These are generally group dances with a lot of bonhomie and courting woven into them. Some dances are strictly martial danced by strong virile warriors with their weapons and trophies. One dance perennially popular is the Cheraw or the 'bamboo dance' so called as long bamboo staves are used for this dance. This is the most colourful and distinctive dance of the Mizos requiring skill and an alert mind to perform.
The other main dances performed during Chapchar Kut are Khuallam, Chheihlam, Chai and Sarlamkai. 'Khual lam' is an auspicious dance performed by a group of dancers celebrating new beginnings. It is also a welcome dance for guests during community festivities.
The bamboo dance is one of the major attractions of Chapchar Kut where only women folk take part in it. It is a very interesting dance form where the men folks tap the bamboos and open and close in rhythmic beats as the dancer steps in and out gracefully to the beats of the bamboos. The festival is an amazing sight with people dressed in outfits vibrant in color and hats made from beads and feathers.
A time for forgiveness
Designed to be a festival of joy, all disputes and differences that may be there in the community should be settled, even altercation between married couples was a taboo during the celebration of the festival. Abundant supply of meat must be there and home brewed liqour must be over-flowing to keep their spirit high. They danced away all their cares and made merry all night long. That sums up how the Mizos celebrate Chapchar Kut in the olden days when they were heathens.
The substantial Mizo community of Manipur celebrates Chapchar Kut on the same day as the celebrations in Mizoram.
Since 2013 the festival has been celebrated at the State-level (i.e. at the all-Manipur level) at Chiengkawnpang under the auspices of the Chiengkonpang branch of the Young Mizo Association, with other youth organisations of the community in Manipur pitching in. The district administration of Churachandpur helps with the arrangments.
Various cultural troupes from within the community and its sister tribes perform dances associated with their culture during the day’s event while the evening session consists of a costume parade that seeks to showcase diversified costumes and evolving trends in couture,'as well as to enthral the crowd,' The Sangai Express reported.
Miss Chapchar Kût
Miss Chapchar Kût 2013
Miss Chapchar Kût 2013: Lalrinhlui Hrahsel
Miss Chapchar Kût 2014
2014 Miss Chapchar Kut Lunglei: Vanlalruatpuii Khiangte, Salemveng.
There are several other articles about Mizoram in Indpaedia.com, including
The page Chapchar Kut includes a section on Miss Chapchar Kut.
Edward Lalrempuia Mami Varte Mizo religion, culture, beliefs, songs, oral literature Mizoram (essential facts about the state) Mizoram 1870-1926: Christianity and literacy Mizoram: A brief chronology (1946-1997) Mizoram: cinema Mizoram: Football Mizoram: Football stars Mizoram: From ancient times to 1946