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Note: National, provincial and district boundaries have changed considerably since 1908. Typically, old states, ‘divisions’ and districts have been broken into smaller units, and many tahsils upgraded to districts. Some units have since been renamed. Therefore, this article is being posted mainly for its historical value.


{Bumbra-ke-Thul). — Ruined city in the Sinjboro taluka of Thar and Parkar District, Sind, Bombay, situated in 25° 52' N. and 68° 52' E., about 11 miles south-east of Shahdadpur in Hyderabad, and 21 miles from Hala. It once stood on the old course of the Indus, and was strongly fortified. Outlying suburbs con- nected it with the cities of Depur and Dalari — the former the royal,

' Brahmagiri is also the name of the peak in the Western Ghats from which the river Cauvery takes its rise.the latter the official quarter, Brahmanabad itself being the commercial centre. The ruins of its fortifications measure 4 miles in circumference. Excavations prove that the inhabitants had attained to great skill in the arts, for the sculptures, engraved gems, carved ivory, earthenware, and coloured glass found among the ruins show both advanced taste and workmanship ; while the arrangement and regularity of the streets and the solid proportions of the buildings attest great architectural excellence. Legends say that the city was founded prior to the seventh century, and was destroyed by the gods in punishment for the iniquities of 'King Dolora.' History so far confirms this tradition as to make mention of an unjust ruler, by name Dolora Amrani, in the eleventh century. That the destruction of the city was as sudden as it was complete is proved by the discovery of whole households overwhelmed together, men and women at their work, and cattle in their stalls. No marks of conflagration are discernible, nor — since household goods and valuables remain /;/ situ — can the ruin of the city be referred to the invasion of an enemy or desertion by the inhabitants. The legend, therefore, is probably so far correct that Brahmanabad was destroyed by natural agency — most probably by the earthquake which about the same time diverted the course of the Indus.

\Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, vol. v, 1857), 'An Account of the Ancient and Ruined City of Brahmanabad in Sind,' by A. F. Bellasis ; Annual Report of the Archaeological Survey of India (1903-4), 'Brahmanabad — Mansura in Sind,' by H. Cousens.

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