Andhra Pradesh (1953-2014)
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A REFERENCE ANNUAL
RESEARCH, REFERENCE AND TRAINING DIVISION
MINISTRY OF INFORMATION AND BROADCASTING
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
Area : 2,75,069 sq km Population : 8.32 crores as on 1.3.09;
846,65,533 (as per prov. census 2011)
Capital : Hyderabad Principal Languages : Telugu and Urdu
HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY
The earliest mention of the Andhras is said to be in Aitereya Brahmana (2000 BC). It indicates that the Andhras, originally an Aryan race living in north India migrated to south of the Vindhyas and later mixed with non-Aryans. Regular history of Andhra Desa, according to historians, begins with 236 BC, the year of Ashoka‘s death. During the following centuries, Satavahanas, Sakas, Ikshvakus, Eastern Chalukyas, and Kakatiyas ruled the Telugu country. Other dynasties that ruled over the area in succession were the kingdoms of Vijayanagar and Qutub Shahi followed by Mir Qumruddin and his successors, known as the Nizams. Gradually, from the 17th century onwards, the British annexed territories of the Nizam and constituted the single province of Madras. After Independence, Telugu-speaking areas were separated from the composite Madras Presidency and a new Andhra State came into being on 1 October 1953. With the passing of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, there was a merger of Hyderabad State and Andhra State, and consequently Andhra Pradesh came into being on 1 November 1956.
Andhra Pradesh is historically called the Rice Bowl of India. The state has a large river system which supplements the rainfall in the state. It is one of the few states in the country blessed with riverine geography.
Andhra Pradesh is bounded on the north by Orissa and Chhattisgarh, on the west by Maharashtra and Karnataka, on the south by Tamil Nadu and on the east by the Bay of Bengal with a coastline of 974 km.
Census 2011 is the 15th Census of India since 1872. As the population figures, desnity of population and other related data of census 2011 at present are purely provisional in nature, we have used the census 2001 data. However, wherever possible we have also used the provisional census 2011 for states & UTs as and when it was available to us. Chattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Orissa (Odisha), Punjab, Sikkim, West Bengal, Daman & Diu. The final population figure is likely to be released by February 2012.
Agriculture is the main occupation of about 62 per cent of the people in Andhra Pradesh. Rice is a major food crop and staple food of the State contributing about 77 per cent of the foodgrain production. Other important crops are jowar, bajra, maize, ragi, small millets, pulses, castor, tobacco, cotton and sugarcane. Forests cover 23 per cent of the State’s area. Important forest products are teak, eucalyptus, cashew, casurina, bamboo, softwood, etc.
The Government is working with a mission of "Sustainable Agriculture Production with minimum cost of cultivation, eventually enhancing the return on income to the farmer." In the process of making the mission a reality, the Government is implementing schemes for the welfare of farmers like 9 hours free power supply, subsidized seed, subsidized interest rate on crop loans, subsidized and quality agricultural inputs etc. Andhra Pradesh occupies the first position in respect of agricultural loans from commercial and cooperative banks.
The debt waiver scheme of Central Government and the incentive scheme of the State Government have helped about one crore farmers in the state to the tune of Rs. 16,000 crore. The Government of Andhra Pradesh is also keen on introducing cooperative farming to set up farm yields.
A total of 86 projects (44 Major+30 Medium+4 Flood Banks+8 Modernisation) have been taken up under Jalayagnam programme, with the aim of completing the ongoing and new projects in a record time to provide immediate irrigation to water starved areas on top priority by mobilizing funds from all possible sources.
Important power projects in the State are : the Nagarjunasagar and Neelam Sanjiva Reddy Sagar (Srisailam Hydel Project), Upper Sileru, Lower Sileru, Tungabhadra Hydel projects and Nellore, Ramagundam, Kothagudem, Vijayawada and Muddanur thermal power projects. The Srisailam Hydro Electric project (Right Bank) with an installed capacity of 770 MW and the Srisailam Left Bank HES capacity of 900 MW and the Nagarjunasagar complex with 960 MW are the principal sources of hydel generation. Vijayawada Thermal Power station with an installed capacity of 1,260 MW and Kothagudem Thermal Power station with an installed capacity of 1,220 MW are the main sources of thermal power generation. The 1,000 MW coalbased Simhadri Thermal Power station aims at supplying the entire energy generated to the State.
The Government of AP is extending various incentives for SSI & Tiny Sector and Large & Medium Scale Industries. The State Government has been promoting the manufacturing sector in a big way by providing concessions in power tariff, allotting land and relaxing labour laws in Special Economic Zones (SEZs). AP has promoted 102 Special Economic Zones (SEZs) of which 64 have been notified by the Government of India. The state has recommended to Government of India for setting up of 59 IT/ITES SEZs, with active private sector participation.
MINES & GEOLOGY
Andhra Pradesh is well known globally for its variety of rocks and minerals and is called Ratna Garbha. Andhra Pradesh has the largest deposits of quality chrysolite asbestos in the country. Other important minerals found in the state are copper ore, manganese, mica, coal and limestone. The Singareni Coal Mines supply coal to the entire south India. The mineral consumption is increasing due to promotion of various industries and manufacture of mineral based products. The state produces about 100 to 110 million tonnes of industrial minerals and 200 million cubic metres of stone and building material. AP stands first in Barytes and Limestone production in the country. The state stands first in value of minor mineral production and second in total value of mineral production in the country contributing about 9 to 10% to the country's mineral value production. The state stands first in mineral revenue among the important Mineral Producing states of the country.
The Government has introduced an innovative, unique, self financed housing scheme "Rajiv Swagruha" for the moderate income group in the state with an objective that every person with moderate income in the state having no house of his/her own must have a house at affordable cost in the urban/municipal areas in the state. The houses/flats have to be made available to them at prices 25% less than the existing market rates on similar specifications. The construction of housing programme under Rajiv Swagruha is under progress.
'Rajiv Arogyasri' is a unique health insurance scheme being implemented in Andhra Pradesh. The scheme enables the poor, suffering from chronic diseases, to undergo treatment costing upto Rs. 2 lakh. All white cardholders can undergo treatment for about 942 diseases. Medical and surgical treatment is provided in 344 corporate, private and Government hospitals free of cost to patients. Aarogyasri scheme is unique in its applicability, since no other state/government agency has provided universal health coverage to the poor for major ailments. The choice of hospital for treatment is with the patient. The entire process from the time of conduct of health camps to the screening, testing, treatment, follow-up and claim for payment is made transparent through online web based processing to prevent any misuse and fraud. This system is motivating more and more Government hospitals to participate in the scheme and utilize the revenue earned to improve facilities to provide quality medical care and thus bring reforms in tertiary medical care. Officials from several states have visited the state and appreciated the scheme.
Andhra Pradesh has been forging ahead in the sphere of Information Technology. It is ahead of other states in exploiting the opportunities to the hilt. The State Government has introduced many schemes to utilize the maximum number of skilled human resources in the I.T. Sector.
Roads : The total R&B road network in the State is 69,051 km as on 31 March 2009, of which, the National Highways passing through Andhra Pradesh constitute 4,472 km., the state Highways constitute 10,519 kms. Major District Roads constitute 32,170 km and rural roads 21,714 kms. The density with reference to R&B road network in the state is 0.23 km per one sq.km. and 0.86 km per 1000 persons.
Railways: Of the railways route covering 5,107 km in Andhra Pradesh, 4,633 km is broad-gauge, 437 km is metre-gauge and 37 km is narrow gauge. Aviation: Important airports in the State are located at Shamshabad, Tirupathi and Visakhapatnam. International flights are operated from Shamshabad. Ports: There is one major Port at Visakhapatnam under Government of India and
13 Non-Major Ports under State Government. Ports offer tremendous potential for development and for the growth of a wide spectrum of maritime activities such as international shipping, coastal shipping, ship repairs, fishing, captive ports for specific industries, all weather ports, tourism and sports, etc.
Andhra Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation continues to strive for promotion of new tourism products such as Eco-tourism, Beach-Tourism and Cruise- Tourism. The Corporation currently runs a chain of 52 hotels with 1043 rooms and 2222 beds in prime locations fostering homely ambience. An impressive fleet of 144 buses cater to varied tour packages connecting important tourism locations within and outside the state.
Charminar, Salarjung Museum, Golconda Fort in Hyderabad, Thousand Pillar Temple and Fort in Warangal, Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple at Yadagirigutta, Buddha Stupa at Nagarjunakonda, Nagarjuna Sagar, Sri Venkateswara Temple at Tirumala-Tirupathi, Sri Mallikarjunaswamy Temple at Srisailam, Kanaka Durga Temple at Vijayawada, Sri Satyanarayana Swamy Temple at Annavaram, Sri Varaha Narasimha Swamy Temple at Simhachalam, Sri Sita Rama Temple at Bhadrachalam, Araku Valley, Horsley Hills, Nelapattu, etc., are the major tourist attractions in Andhra Pradesh.
Governor : Shri E.S.L. Narasimhan
Chief Minister : Shri Kiran Kumar Reddy
Chief Secretary : Shri S.V. Prasad
AREA, POPULATION AND HEADQUARTERS OF DISTRICTS
S.No. District Area Population Headquarters in 000’ sq km 2001 Census 1. Adilabad 16.1 24,88,003 Adilabad
2. Ananthapur 19.1 36,40,478 Ananthapur
3. Chittoor 15.2 37,45,875 Chittoor
4. Kadapa 15.4 26,01,797 Kadapa
5. East Godavari 10.8 49,01,420 Kakinada
6. Guntur 11.4 44,65,144 Guntur
7. Hyderabad 0.2 38,29,753 Hyderabad
8. Karimnagar 11.8 34,91,822 Karimnagar
9. Khammam 16.0 25,78,927 Khammam
10. Krishna 8.7 41,87,841 Machilipatnam
11. Kurnool 17.7 35,29,494 Kurnool
12. Mahaboobnagar 18.4 35,13,934 Mahaboobnagar
13. Medak 9.7 26,70,097 Sangareddy
14. Nalgonda 14.2 32,47,982 Nalgonda
15. Nellore 13.1 26,68,564 Nellore
16. Prakasam 17.6 30,59,423 Ongole
17. Nizamabad 8.0 23,45,685 Nizamabad
18. Ranga Reddy 7.5 35,75,064 Hyderabad
19. Srikakulam 5.8 25,37,593 Srikakulam
20. Visakhapatnam 11.2 38,32,336 Visakhapatnam
21. Vizianagaram 6.5 22,49,254 Vizianagaram
22. Warangal 12.9 32,46,004 Warangal
23. West Godavari 7.7 38,03,517 Eluru
Telangana and Andhra: 1953-2014
1953: FORCED MARRIAGE between Telangana and Andhra
States Reorganization Committee (1953) advised against immediate merger with Andhra
Said region’s opinion yet to crystallize and back a merger Telangana’s economy less developed than Andhra But revenue base larger as it taxed liquor.
In Andhra liquor was prohibited Fears of liquor revenues diverted to Andhra
Worried that irrigation projects in Krishna & Godavari wouldn’t benefit them
Feared the better-educated Andhraites would dominate Andhra would have unfair advantage over jobs
WHAT WAS PROPOSED (in 1953)
Telangana be separate state
Merge only if unification resolution passed in Telangana House with 2/3 majority after 1961 general elections
Hyderabad state CM Burgula Ramakrishna Rao said majority in Telangana against merger But he backed Cong decision to merge region with Andhra
THE 1950s: PRE-NUP CONTRACT
Nov 25, 1955, Andhra assembly passed resolution to provide safeguards to Telangana
Vowed to treat region as a “special charge” Promised guarantees for region’s development These included quotas in jobs, educational institutions
Agreement on Feb 20, 1956 on merger with promised safeguards
Telangana merged with Andhra state to form Andhra Pradesh on November 1, 1956
Deal provided reassurances to Telangana in terms of powersharing and administrative domicile rules and distribution of expenses of various regions
MOVE TO SEPARATE Telangana
Massive revolt of Telangana people in 1968-69 demanding separation called Jai Telangana Movement
As conciliatory measure, All-Party Accord signed in Jan 1969 under Brahmananda Reddy Indira Gandhi announced packages for region, styled eight-point formula and fivepoint formula
When these packages were being worked out, SC gave historic Mulki Rules judgment This upheld the rule of job and educational quotas in Telangana for region’s residents But political elite of Andhra region didn’t digest these corrective measures This gave rise to separate Andhra state stir — Jai Andhra Movement
Jai Andhra leaders demanded scrapping guarantees to Telangana people or bifurcation Venkaiah Naidu and Chandrababu Naidu, among others, were in forefront of Jai Andhra stir Centre yielded and nullified, by act of Parliament, almost all safeguards.
The SC judgment on Mulki rules disregarded a diluted 6-point formula foisted on people
December 2009, home minister Chidambaram says Centre serious about Telangana
July 30, 2013: creation of Telangana announced
A history of the union between Andhra and Telangana
Andhra: A break-up after a 58-yr chequered existence
Manoj Mitta | TNN
The Times of India 2013/07/31
India’s first linguistic state
It was billed as India’s first linguistic state, formed in 1956 through a merger of the Andhra state with the Telangana region of the Hyderabad state. Though its template of a linguistic state was replicated in other parts of the country, Andhra Pradesh is breaking up after a chequered 58-year existence.
The pioneering experiment in making language the basis of state formation was doomed from its inception. For, AP was a forced union, as evident from the forebodings in the contemporaneous report of the States Reorganization Commission (SRC). The Andhra and Rayalaseema regions were forced on Telangana, primarily for the coveted prize of Hyderabad city and for the wealthy coastal area to gain control over the upper riparian area.
The new map of the landmass that was till 2013-14 called AP will be closer to the one around the time of independence. It was then an overlap of Madras presidency and the princely state of Hyderabad. Following the “police action” in Sept 1948, Hyderabad ruled by the Nizams became the last major state to join the Indian union.
In its three-year transition to democracy, the composite Hyderabad state, which comprised Telangana, Marathwada and northeastern Karnataka districts, was governed first by a military administrator (Maj Gen J N Chaudhuri), then a chief executive (ICS officer M K Vellodi). Hyderabad acquired its first elected government in 1952, when Cogress leader Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was sworn in as CM.
Andhra carved out of Madras
The existence of the nascent Hyderabad state came under a shadow a year later when the Andhra state was carved out of Madras, following the death of Telugu champion Potti Sreeramulu in the course of his fast. This was the first break-up of a state on the question of language. The Hyderabad state was feeling the heat of the Vishalandhra movement in the new Andhra state, demanding a unification of all Telugu-speaking districts. The movement was fuelled partly by the absence of a readymade capital in the Andhra state, which was being administered literally out of tents from the small town of Kurnool.
1953: SRC (States Reorganization Committee )
Though it was appointed in 1953 to pave the way for Vishalandhra, SRC headed by ex-SC judge Fazal Ali threw a spanner in the works when it gave its report two years later. It cautioned against any forced union saying “while public opinion in Andhra is in favour of the large unit, public opinion in Telangana has still to crystallize itself.” Disregarding SRC’s warning, the Nehru government yielded to pressure from Andhra. The SRC has proved to be prescient.
Telangana agitation: YSR stoked T-fire to trip Naidu
Subodh Ghildiyal TNN The Times of India
The contemporary Telangana agitation, the last and the most successful over six decades, started as a cynical move on the part of the most virulent opponent of division of Andhra Pradesh, Y S Rajasekhara Reddy [YSR].
YSR had stoked the Telangana sentiment and associated himself with regional aspirations just to trip the unshakeable Chandrababu Naidu. But once in power, he contested in 2009 against statehood and managed to decimate TRS in its stronghold to prove that there was no sentiment for statehood. He emerged the undisputed czar of AP. Telangana appeared doomed for another heartbreak, but for the air crash that killed YSR early in his second innings as CM.
YSR aides recall how the Cogress strongman became desperate as his friend Naidu dug in his heels as CM. Concern was rife that another victory in 2004 would push Cogress and YSR to irrelevance. Thinking on his feet, he devised a four-point strategy to make Naidu suspect among regions and social groups, Telangana, peace with Maoists, free power and padayatra.
“We threw everything at Naidu that we could. It was a desperate move,” a key follower and Cogress minister from Andhra recalled.
The Inevitability Of Telangana
Redrawing Andhra Pradesh’s map stems from the Congres’s electoral compulsions
The Times of India 2013/08/01
Following the integration of 550 princely dominions into the Indian Union in 1956, language was chosen as the basis on which the new states were created. The only exception was the Hindi heartland which was so vast that it was considered prudent to create several states.
Implicit in the creation of linguistic states was the belief that language is the basis of culture. If the same language was spoken across a state it meant that it represented homogenous culture. But this was a faulty belief to start with. In fact, Andhra Pradesh was the first state that was created on a linguistic basis. The state was created much against the wishes of the people of Telangana. They did not want the region to be merged with the Andhra state (formed in 1953 after separation from Madras state) as they felt that Andhra’s culture was different from Telangana.
The people of Andhra and Telangana: differences between
They roughly spoke the same language but the Sanskritised Telugu of Andhra was different from the Telugu of Telangana that was influenced by Dakhni, an admixture of Urdu, Telugu, Marathi and Kannada. Besides, the cultures of the two people were different and so were their festivals and food habits.
Coupled with this cultural disconnect were the different endowments of the two people. Under the Madras presidency during British rule, the people of Andhra were educated in English, but the Nizam’s state that governed the Telangana region used Urdu as the medium of instruction and administration.
As a result of the sophisticated irrigation systems the British introduced in the Andhra region farming prospered and farmers reaped surpluses which they reinvested. This led to a culture of entrepreneurship and risk-taking among the wealthy. In sharp contrast, the feudal zamindari system, based on exploitation rather than enterprise, dominated the Nizam’s territory.
Which was the Andhra Telugus’ main city?
The formation of Andhra Pradesh was the result of a merger between two regions – Telangana and Andhra. But it was in essence an unequal marriage. Since the Andhra region had no large cities (prior to their separation from Madras state, the Andhra Telugus treated Madras city as their own), the capital was located in the Nizam’s Hyderabad, a sprawling, well-planned city.
After Andhra Pradesh’s creation, the rush of migration from the hinterland to the capital also sparked an influx of Telugus from Andhra to Hyderabad. Two factors added to this impetus. First, with the downfall of the Nizam, a large section of the Muslim elites emigrated to Pakistan, Europe and even North America. They left behind vast, prime real estate that was purchased cheap by the rich Andhra folks.
Secondly, as English was the language of governance across other states, the authorities insisted that the positions of officers and clerks would be filled by importing qualified people from Andhra. The local folk, though cultured, had no knowledge of English. To add insult to injury, the migrants from Andhra looked down on Telangana’s denizens – as though lack of English knowledge was a sign of their illiteracy and absence of culture an indicator of their indolence.
The first movement for Telangana
The first movement for Telangana, which began in 1969 on the Osmania University campus, continued intermittently for two years. Indira Gandhi crushed the Telangana cause with an iron hand. Although the movement fell flat the spirit of Telangana’s people, spurred by narratives of economic exploitation, invasion of their land and cultural subjugation, stayed alive.
At the same time, the steady inflow of people from Andhra into Hyderabad and the overwhelmingly large population in that region aided in the narrative of domination. Politically, this meant that the Andhra region was more influential in terms of the number of legislators it sent to the assembly. The passage of time neither diminished the sentiment in Telangana nor caused the proliferation of a common culture.
The movement for Telangana’s statehood revived with the creation of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Uttarakhand in 2000. This time, the political movement was spearheaded by the Telangana Rashtra Samiti (TRS). The Congres allied with the TRS in the 2004 elections to defeat the Telugu Desam Party which was in power for two terms and appeared invincible. But once in power, the Congres showed little resolve to create Telangana. By the time of the 2009 general elections, the Congres had gone back on its promise.
The Congres’s decision now to create Telangana arises out of political compulsions: non-fulfilment of its promise would mean certain rout in the region in the 2014 Lok Sabha elections. There are renewed demands for the formation of new states and they will certainly gain momentum in the days to come. The pulls and pressures from various quarters will become increasingly strong, especially in the event of another coalition government at the Centre after the 2014 elections.
But it does have its share of natural resources and notably contains 20% of the country's coal deposits.
Among other natural resources are mica and bauxite along with some limestone reserves.
The Naxalite movement
But given the lack of development, Telangana has served as a fertile ground for the Maoist insurgency to take root.
A clutch of leaders of the Naxalite movement hail from the region. Slain Maoist Kishanji, who was No.3 in the rebels' hierarchy, hailed from Karimnagar district.
With the inclusion of Hyderabad, Telangana would find itself in control of one of the primary centres of India's tech story.
Offices of major national and international corporates houses are present in Hyderabad, drawing people from across the country to the city.
The people of Telangana argue that the seat of the Nizams was always an integral part of their region.
The Telangana agitation, as they point out, was started by the people of the region who complained that "Andhra" leaders had flouted the "Gentlemen's Agreement" which had facilitated the formation of the state, in November 1956.
The break-up of Andhra Pradesh
What the break-up of Andhra Pradesh means for the Telugu people
Divided AP to lose political clout
TIMES NEWS NETWORK
The partition of Andhra will cause the state to lose the political clout it wielded since ’90s in national politics.
With 42 seats in Lok Sabha, Andhra along with West Bengal accounts for the third biggest kitty of LS seats after UP (80) and Maharashtra (48). It climbed to the third spot after the partition of Bihar saw its share of LS seats dipping from 54 to 40, with the rest going to Jharkhand.
After AP’s bifurcation, 17 LS seats will be allotted to Telangana, leaving the mother state with 25 seats, the same as Rajasthan. The heft that the number of seats equipped it with had enabled the state to be the playmaker in successive polls, especially since 1996. N Chandrababu Naidu-led TDP emerged as the anchor of the two UF governments. TDP’s switch to the Vajpayee camp was a key factor in BJP’s success in holding on to power in the mid-term LS polls in 1999.
The state, along with TN and Bihar, played a big role in Cogress’s surprise win in 2004, with the late YSR leading the party to a landslide in LS and state polls that year. YSR defied incumbency and the popular wisdom to pull off an encore five years later, helping Cogress to outgun the BJP decisively in the 2009 polls. Both in 2004 and in 2009, the state yielded the largest chunk of MPs for not only Cogress but for any party from a state. The party won 29 of the 42 seats in 2004 and 33 in 2009.
What the break-up of Andhra Pradesh means for Telangana
Control over Krishna and Godavari waters Catchment of 68% Krishna | 69% Godavari river
But so far, Telangana got only 32% Krishna water. Agitators said should get 70%
Prakasam Barrage, Nagarjuna Sagar, Srisailam draw away water to other AP regions
Benefits of irrigation canals | 74% Coastal Andhra | 18% Telangana | 8% Rayalaseema 45% of AP’s forest area in Telangana across five districts
Singareni collieries excavate coal for industry, power stations
Power generated supplied to entire south India
Region has limestone deposits, besides bauxite & mica
Jobs For [Telangana] Region's People
Only 20% AP’s Govt employees were from Telangana, Population-wise, should have been 40% , more than 6 lakh. In reality, barely 3 lakh
Less than 5% dept heads in AP govt were from Telangana
Only 6 out of 12 AP CMs from Telangana
As A State
Telangana’s per capita income, 10th highest in country, notch above all-India average
In absolute GDP terms, Telangana (without Hyd) above Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, U’khand, HP, Goa. Among all states, at 15th place
68% Krishna waters
45% of andhra’s forest area 20% of country's coal deposits 50% ap revenues are from here [Telangana]
What the break-up of Andhra Pradesh means for Andhra
In absolute GDP size, Andhra region third among states
Per capita income of Andhra 11th highest, above all-India average
Rich in agriculture, owing to Godavari and Krishna deltas
Within AP, coastal Andhra is superior economic entity
Considered a rice bowl
Now loses control over rivers Krishna and Godavari
Loses control over mineralrich Telangana region
Has to develop a new capital city
Loses Telangana revenue that was 50% of state revenues
What the break-up of Andhra Pradesh means for Rayalaseema
Srikrishna Panel called it AP’s most deprived/ backward region
This, despite fact that five AP CMs from Rayalaseema, among them YSR, Chandrababu Naidu
Compared to Telangana and Andhra, Rayalaseema worse off in industry. Basically agrarian
Flight of capital from Rayalaseema to Karnataka with Reddy community investing in real estate and industry in Karnataka
Perception that Andhra region exploitative
With Telangana carved out, possibility of Greater Rayalaseema statehood demand
What the break-up of Andhra Pradesh means for the ‘rump state’
‘Rump state to be eco powerhouse’
The new rump state that will remain after Telangana is carved out will emerge as an economic powerhouse with the growth of coastal AP and cities like Visakhapatnam and Vijayawada, many feel. In the past four to five years coastal Andhra industrialists have pumped money into the region, in pharma, chemicals and petrochemicals.
’Rayala Telangana’: Caste and power
The contested ideas of Rayala Telangana
Kingshuk Nag 30 July 2013
UnitedAndhra Pradesh was dominated by the Reddys, followed by Kapus and SCs
The Cogress in Andhra Pradesh has been the domain of the Reddys ever since it struck deep roots in this part of the world with the Kapus (an intermediate farming caste) and the Dalits as junior partners. Reddys form only 8% of the state's population but as feudal lords in a state where land reforms have been conspicuous by their absence, their influence extends far beyond their numbers.
For example, 10 out of the 16 chief ministers of Andhra Pradesh have been Reddys, with some serving multiple terms. With the creation of Telangana, the hegemony of the Reddys is expected to be broken with new caste equations coming into play. In Rayala Telangana, where Telangana would have been fused with two districts of Rayalaseema, would have maintained Reddy dominance in one of the successor states of the present Andhra Pradesh.
In the new Andhra state (called Andhra Pradesh!), the Kapus and Kammas (represented by Chandrababu Naidu's TDP) will vie for power, leaving the Reddys nowhere.
No wonder then that Jaipal Reddy, a Union minister and staunch Reddy, is credited with the Rayala Telangana plan along with senior national Muslim ministers, who are apprehensive that in the new Telangana state, the spectre of Hindu-Muslim conflict reminiscent of the last decade of the Nizam's rule will hang thick. Stories suggest that these national Muslim ministers had been lobbied by parties like MIM (representing Muslim interests), that the forces will be more "even" if the two Rayalaseema districts are tagged on to Telangana. Some Rayalaseema districts have large Muslim populations, being part of the Nizam's territories that were later ceded to the British. The BJP, conspicuous by its absence in Andhra Pradesh, is looking at the new Telangana as a launching pad in this part of the world.
Besides this caste rationale, the attempt to create Rayala Telangana was to stymie future demand for a Rayalaseema state. Even as the Telangana movement was raging, influential political figures raised the demand for a separate Rayalaseema state. Not surprising, considering the wide perception among people of Rayalaseema that they would be dominated by Andhra region folks in a new dispensation.
The demand included the creation of a new state, including Bellary district of neighbouring Karnataka that is historically part of Rayalaseema. Breaking up Rayalaseema, with two districts going to Andhra and two to Telangana, would ensure that the demand for a separate state will be nipped in the bud.
People of Rayalaseema were distressed at the prospects of Rayala Telangana. The common man in Rayalaseema sees this as a blow to his identity. A senior IPS officer submitted his resignation from the service to protest against the move.
Although Rayalaseema has been the home of many Andhra chief ministers starting with Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy, who was later President of India, the region is marked by extreme backwardness. Once part of the Vijayanagara empire, the area fell on bad times later.
For hundreds of years till the 2000s, it was the state's wild west with a culture of violence, bombs and assassinations. There was no economic activity and unirrigated land was the asset over which families and factions fought and killed for generations.
This is why the people of Telangana are so cut up with the idea of being boxed in a new state with parts of Rayalaseema. "We don't even intermarry with them. Fusing Rayalaseema into Telangana will give them a free run here, where we don't want them," a journalist from Telangana told writer Kingshuk Nag. That is why the Telangana Rashtra Samiti which was in the vanguard of the movement has rejected the Rayala Telangana idea, as has the BJP.
Andhra: Caste and the location of the new capital
Caste war breaks out over new AP capital
Reddys And Kammas Lobby For Power
M N Samdhani TNN
The Times of India 2013/08/03
Vijayawada: It now seems caste will discharge a vital function in the formation of the new capital of Andhra Pradesh, or Seemandhra as it is being referred to.
Top caste leaders from the dominant Reddys and Kammas are trying to strike deals with the Centre on the location of the new capital, three days after the UPA alliance agreed on the formation of a new Telangana state, a highly placed political source told TOI on Friday. The battlelines are drawn with Reddy and Kamma politicians — across party lines — trying to outwit each other on the financially lucrative issue of building a new capital.
More than 60 out of 175 MLAs from Seemandhra belong to the Reddy community, whose loathing for the Kammas, who have 24 MLAs from Seemandhra, is well known. The Reddy leaders have thus made it clear they would never agree on a capital anywhere around Vijayawada or Guntur, as these are Kamma strongholds, and favour Tirupati or Kurnool or even Ongole.
“The central coastal districts of Krishna and Guntur are Kamma districts. The Congres does not want to make Reddys’ arch-rivals, the Kammas, prosper,” said a top Reddy leader.
Sensing trouble, the AP Chamber of Commerce and other merchant bodies, represented by Kammas in Krishna, have begun lobbying for Vijayawada.
Andhra Pradesh (1953-2014)